M.A.Clem. et D.L.Jones
Nematoceras sulcatum, also known as the grooved helmet-orchid, is one of two helmet orchids endemic to Australia’s subantarctic Macquarie Island, and the second to be discovered. The specific epithet comes from the Latin sulcatus – “grooved”, with reference to the prominent groove in the labellum boss. It is a small, terrestrial, tuberous, herbaceous plant that forms clonal colonies. The flower is erect, mostly dark red, 25–30 mm long and 10–14 mm wide. The flowering period is November–December. It occurs on the plateau uplands of the island, growing in wet grassy seepage areas. It can be distinguished from its congener, and the only other orchid on the island Nematoceras dienemum, by its dark red flowers.
Macquarie Island is a nature reserve, a World Heritage Site and a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. However, the orchid is listed as endangered on the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 because of its restricted distribution, small population (estimated in 2010 to comprise fewer than 250 mature individual plants), and projected decline through ongoing habitat degradation caused by the grazing, digging and burrowing activities of rabbits.
- Clements & Jones (2007).
- Tasmanian Threatened Species Listing Statement (2010).
- Clements, M.A. & Jones, D.L. (2007). "A new species of Nematoceras and characterisation of N. dienemum (Orchidaceae), both from subantarctic Macquarie Island" (PDF). Telopea. 11 (4): 405–411.
- Clements, Mark A.; Mackenzie, Anne M.; Copson, Geof R.; Molloy, Brian P.J.; Carmichael, Noel; Skotnicki, Mary L. & Selkirk, Patricia M. (2007). "Biology and molecular phylogenetics of Nematoceras sulcatum , a second endemic orchid species from subantarctic Macquarie Island". Polar Biology. 30 (7): 859–869. doi:10.1007/s00300-006-0246-y.
- "Nematoceras sulcatum – grooved helmet-orchid" (PDF). Tasmanian Threatened Species Listing Statement. Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Tasmania. 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
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