Frank R. Wallace
|Frank R. Wallace|
|Died||January 26, 2006
|Education||University of Iowa (doctorate)|
|Organization||Integrated Management Associates|
|Known for||Social and political writer, philosopher, mail-order entrepreneur|
Frank R. Wallace (1932 – January 26, 2006), born Wallace Ward, was an American author, publisher and mail-order magnate. Previously a professional poker player, he is originator of the philosophy of Neo-Tech (also referred to as "Neotech" or "Neothink") an offshoot of Ayn Rand's Objectivism. He was convicted of various federal tax crimes in the 1990s. During his trials, he challenged the oath he was required to take before testifying which became the case United States v. Ward in which the Appeals Court upheld his right to recite an alternate oath.
Education and career
Wallace Ward graduated from Colby College in 1954. In 1957 he earned his doctorate in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry from the State University of Iowa. He then worked for nine years as a research chemist for DuPont. He then turned to philosophy and started I & O Publishing in 1968 and served as president, publisher, and editor, writing books and articles under various pen names. One of his books was about how to win at poker.
Wallace owned the Integrated Management Associates publishing company, a spin-off of I & O that publishes books and articles by various writers (including himself) concerning Neo-Tech.
Australian Fair Trading Minister Margaret Keech criticized Neo-Tech as a group of "con-artists", for claiming to select "a small handful of 'special' individuals" to receive "secret wisdom of ages", and then asking the individuals to pay money to obtain these "secrets". The company was the subject of a 2000 ruling by the Advertising Standards Authority of the UK, in which the Authority claimed Neo-Tech had "not provided evidence, other than anecdotal, to show the guaranteed earnings, improvements to health, and other benefits ... had been, or could be, attained".
Comic book author Alan Grant wrote a four-part Anarky miniseries in 1997, and an eight-part ongoing series in 1999, for DC Comics based on Wallace's Neo-Tech philosophy. Grant said, "I felt he [Anarky] was the perfect character [to express the Neo-Tech philosophy] because he's human, he has no special powers, the only power he's got is the power of his own rational consciousness." Illustrator and Anarky co-creator Norm Breyfogle viewed Neo-Tech as a "modernized" interpretation of Objectivism.
Tax evasion and the "fully integrated Honesty" oath
On March 29, 1990, Wallace was indicted on three counts of tax evasion and three counts of willful failure to timely file Federal income tax returns or pay taxes. At his trial, Wallace proposed an alternative oath written by him, to be used before testifying, using the phrase "fully integrated Honesty." The court denied his request, insisting on a "standard oath." The court would not allow Wallace to testify in his defense unless he took the standard oath.
Wallace made an opening statement at the trial in February 1991, and cross-examined government witnesses. He also wanted to testify in his own defense, and offered to take both his own oath and the oath prescribed by the U.S. District Court. The District Court refused to allow him to testify unless he used only the oath prescribed by the Court, which he declined to do. He was convicted on all charges. He appealed, in part on the ground that the District Court had violated his freedom of religion, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed his conviction. The Court of Appeals held that by refusing to allow him to testify unless he used only the oath prescribed by the District Court, the District Court had violated Ward's First Amendment right to freedom of religion.
Wallace used his own wording for the oath in a re-trial. In the re-trial in 1993, a jury found him guilty of tax evasion for years 1983, 1984 and 1985.
- Daily News of Los Angeles (August 20, 1992). "Tax-Evasion Conviction Reversed"; accessed February 13, 2014.
- Austen, Jake (2003). A Friendly Game of Poker: 52 Takes on the Neighborhood Game. Chicago Review Press, Incorporated. ISBN 9781556525124. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Colby Magazine, Summer 2006, Vol 95, No 2
- Wallace, Frank (1980). A guaranteed income for life by using the advanced concepts of poker. Warner Books. p. 359. ISBN 978-0446974554.
- (2005). 'Mystical' letter scam warning. The Age Online; accessed February 13, 2014.
- Levene, Tony (2005). Capital Letters: Secret society rubbish is fit only for the bin. The Guardian; accessed February 13, 2014.
- From Objectivism to Neo-Tech and Back. accessed February 13, 2014.
- "Holy Penis Collapsor Batman! DC Publishes The First Zonpower Comic Book!?!?!" at the Wayback Machine (archived February 18, 1998). gocomics.com. Accessed February 18, 1998
- Best, Daniel (2003). "Norm Breyfogle @ Adelaide Comics and Books". Adelaide Comics and Books. ACAB Publishing. Retrieved 2007-01-24.
- Blond, Neil C. (2009). Evidence. Aspen Publishers Online. pp. 12–. ISBN 9780735586161. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Lippman, Matthew (2015-04-07). Criminal Evidence. SAGE Publications. pp. 241–. ISBN 9781483359564. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Henderson man accident victim, Las Vegas Review-Journal, January 28, 2006.
- Quotations related to Frank R. Wallace at Wikiquote