Neonatal resuscitation also known as newborn resuscitation is the resuscitation of newborn children with birth asphyxia. About a quarter of all neonatal deaths globally are caused by birth asphyxia, and depending on how quickly and successfully the infant is resuscitated, hypoxic damage can occur to most of the infant's organs (heart, lungs, liver, gut, kidneys), but brain damage is of most concern.
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) has published Consensus on science and treatment recommendations for neonatal resuscitation in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Traditionally, newborn children have been resuscitated using mechanical ventilation with 100% oxygen, but there has since the 1980s increasingly been debated whether newborn infants with asphyxia should be resuscitated with 100% oxygen or normal air, and notably Ola Didrik Saugstad has been a major advocate of using normal air. It has been demonstrated that high concentrations of oxygen lead to generation of oxygen free radicals, which have a role in reperfusion injury after asphyxia. The 2010 ILCOR guidelines recommend the use of normal air rather than 100% oxygen.
- Guidelines on basic newborn resuscitation, 2012, World Health Organization
- Saugstad, OD; Rootwelt, T; Aalen, O (1998). "Resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants with room air or oxygen: an international controlled trial: the Resair 2 study". Pediatrics. 102 (1).
- Davis, PG; Tan, A; O'Donnell, CPF; Schulze, A (2004). "Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100% oxygen or air: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The Lancet. 364: 1329–1333. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17189-4. PMID 15474135.
- Kutzsche, S; Ilves, P; Kirkeby, OJ; Saugstad, OD (2001). "Hydrogen peroxide production in leukocytes during cerebral hypoxia and reoxygenation with 100% or 21% oxygen in newborn piglets". Pediatric Research. 49: 834–842. doi:10.1203/00006450-200106000-00020. PMID 11385146.
- ILCOR Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines 2010