American Academy of Pediatrics

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American Academy of Pediatrics
Formation1930; 92 years ago (1930)
TypeProfessional association
HeadquartersItasca, Illinois, United States
Coordinates42°02′12″N 87°58′58″W / 42.0366°N 87.9827°W / 42.0366; -87.9827Coordinates: 42°02′12″N 87°58′58″W / 42.0366°N 87.9827°W / 42.0366; -87.9827
Official language
AAP President
Lee Beers, MD, FAAP

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois. It maintains its Department of Federal Affairs office in Washington, D.C.[1]


The Academy was founded in 1930 by 35 pediatricians to address pediatric healthcare standards.[2] It has 67,000 members in primary care and sub-specialist areas.[3] Qualified pediatricians can become fellows (FAAP).[4]

The Academy runs continuing medical education (CME) programs for pediatricians and sub-specialists. The Academy is divided into 14 departments and 26 divisions that assist with carrying out its mission.[5]


It has the largest pediatric publishing program in the world, with more than 300 titles for consumers and over 500 titles for physicians and other healthcare professionals. These publications include electronic products, professional references/textbooks, practice management publications, patient education materials, and parenting books.[6]

The AAP News is the academy's official news magazine,[7] and Pediatrics is its flagship journal.[8]

The AAP issues a weekly report[9] on COVID-19 cases in the United States. States began reporting COVID-19 cases on September 17, 2020. The AAP tracked 587,948 child COVID-19 cases, 5,016 child hospitalizations, and 109 child deaths.[10]

The Julius B. Richmond Center[edit]

In 2006, the Academy received a grant from the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute (FAMRI) to plan and establish a Center of Excellence dedicated to the elimination of children's exposure to tobacco and secondhand smoke. The Richmond Center was established to help institutionalize pediatric tobacco control activities at AAP and was named in honor of Julius B. Richmond, MD, Chair of the FAMRI Medical Advisory Board and former Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. The Center provides the education, training, and tools needed to effectively intervene to protect children from the harmful effects of tobacco and secondhand smoke.

Policy positions[edit]

The Academy has published hundreds of policy statements ranging from advocacy issues to practice recommendations. The academy's policy website contains all current Academy policies and clinical reports.[11] The AAP policy regarding its statements is to give each statement a five-year life, after which the statement expires unless it is reaffirmed.

Age limit[edit]

The AAP has changed positions on its age limit throughout the years. In 1988, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a statement on the age limit of pediatrics that identified the upper age limit of pediatrics as age 21. The policy had a note that exceptions could always be made when the doctor and family jointly agree to an older age.[12]

Recent studies have shown that the age of 21 years is just an arbitrary line for adolescence because brain development has not reached adult levels of functioning until their early 30s. In a 2017 policy update, AAP changed its policy to discourage age limits of pediatric providers and instead have families reach an agreement with their pediatric provider as to when to transition care.[13]


In 2009, the national office and four of its State chapters provided training support to 49 pediatric practices to improve adherence to well-established asthma care guidelines. The percentage of patients at participating practices with well-controlled asthma (as defined by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) rose from 58 to 72 percent.[14]

Car safety seats[edit]

The AAP periodically issues guidance for child passenger safety, including policy recommendations for transitioning between rear-facing car seats, front-facing car seats, belt-positioning booster car seats, and vehicle safety belts.[15] These recommendations are typically published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Pediatrics,[16][17] and tend to attract attention and controversy in popular press and social media.[18][19]

Previously, the AAP recommended that children remain rear-facing until they are two years of age.[16] In response to updated crash test, simulation, and field data, the AAP revised their guidance to exclude the age guideline entirely.[20] Current AAP Child Passenger Safety recommendations (as of August 30, 2018) state that children should remain in a rear-facing car seat for as long as possible, until they meet the maximum height or weight dictated by the car seat manufacturer.[17] The full recommendations state that:

  1. Infants, toddlers and children should remain rear-facing as long as possible. Currently available car seats provide weight and height limits that allow children to be rear-facing beyond their second birthday.
  2. Once children are transitioned to forward-facing, they should use a car safety seat equipped with a 5-point harness for as long as the manufacturer recommends (i.e., until they reach the manufacturer's weight or height limit). Currently available convertible car seats and combination car seats support the use of a 5-point harness until a child is 65 pounds (29 kg) or more.
  3. Once children are transitioned to a belt-positioning booster car seat, they should continue to use the booster until the vehicle's lap and shoulder belt fit properly, which typically occurs when a child is over 4 feet 8 inches (142 cm) tall, and approximately 8–12 years of age.
  4. Once children are transitioned to the vehicle's lap and shoulder seat belt, they should always use the vehicle's seat belt to maximize protection in the event of an accident.
  5. Children under 13 years of age should be seated in the rear passenger seat (not the front seat) to maximize protection in the event of an accident.

COVID schooling in person[edit]

On June 29, 2020, AAP stated that it "strongly advocates that all policy considerations for the coming school year should start with a goal of having students physically present in school" as remote learning makes it more difficult for education professionals to notice learning deficits, physical and sexual abuse, depression and suicidal ideation. The AAP argued that masks are probably not practical for children younger than middle school unless they can wear a mask without increased face touching. Teachers unions opposed the AAP statement, however, saying "Our educators are overwhelmingly not comfortable returning to schools ... They fear for their lives, the lives of their students and the lives of their families."[21] Two weeks later, the AAP walked back its support, under political pressure from teachers and other groups.[22] President Donald Trump had cited AAP's original statement repeatedly, pressuring school leaders to reopen schools.[22]

Digital advertising to children[edit]

In its 2020 statement in Pediatrics, the AAP called for banning all digital advertising targeted to children under the age of 7 and urged limits to advertising aimed at people under 17.[23]

Elective infant circumcision[edit]

In 1999, the academy said that the health benefits of the procedure outweigh the risks, and supports having the procedure covered by insurance.[24][25][26]

In a 2012 position statement, the academy stated that a systematic evaluation of the medical literature shows that the "preventive health benefits of elective circumcision of male newborns outweigh the risks of the procedure" and that the health benefits "are sufficient to justify access to this procedure for families choosing it and to warrant third-party payment for circumcision of male newborns," but "are not great enough to recommend routine circumcision for all male newborns". The academy takes the position that parents should make the final decision about circumcision after appropriate information is gathered about the risks and benefits of the procedure.[27]

After the release of the position statement, a debate appeared in the journal Pediatrics and the Journal of Medical Ethics.[28][29][30] In 2013, a group of 38 Northern European pediatricians, doctors, surgeons, ethicists and lawyers co-authored a comment stating that they found the AAP's technical report and policy statement suffered from cultural bias, and reached recommendations and conclusions different from those of physicians in other parts of the world;[28] in particular, the group advocated instead a policy of no-harm towards the infants and respect for their rights of bodily integrity and age of consent.[28] An opinion by two authors stated that, in their view, the AAP's analysis was inaccurate, improper and incomplete.[29] The AAP received further criticism from activist groups that oppose circumcision.[31][32] The AAP responded to these criticisms in the Journal of Medical Ethics, calling for respectful and evidence-based debate.[33]

The AAP policy regarding its statements is to give each statement a five-year life, after which the statement expires unless it is reaffirmed.[27] The 2012 Circumcision Policy Statement has not been reaffirmed, so it expired in 2017. As of 2021, the AAP has no official circumcision policy.[citation needed]

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems[edit]

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (electronic cigarettes, e-hookahs, vape pens, others) are highly addictive and often candy flavored products that are rapidly rising in popularity among middle and high school students, and appear to be serving as a gateway to other forms of tobacco, and threaten to addict a new generation to nicotine.[34] 

When they are sold, concentrated nicotine solutions such as those used in electronic nicotine delivery systems should be required to be in child-proof containers and be limited to a quantity of nicotine that would not be lethal to a young child if ingested.  The US Food and Drug Administration needs to tightly regulate these products to protect youth.

Female genital cutting[edit]

In April 2010, the academy revised its policy statement on female genital cutting, with one part of the new policy proving controversial. Although condemning female genital cutting overall, this statement suggested that current federal law banning the practice had the unintended consequence of driving families to perform the procedures in other countries, where these girls faced increased risk. As a possible compromise, this policy statement suggested that physicians have the option to perform a ceremonial "nick" on girls as a last resort to prevent them from being sent overseas for full circumcision. This particular position proved controversial to advocates for a full ban on female genital cutting under any circumstances[35] and concern from other medical groups[36] that even a "nick" would be condoning this widely rejected procedure. One month later, the academy retracted this policy statement.[37][38]

Genetic testing in children[edit]

The American Academy of Pediatrics AGCM posted guidelines in dealing with the ethical issues in pediatric genetic testing.[39]

Gun violence prevention[edit]

The American Academy of Pediatrics says that although U.S. firearms-related deaths have dropped since the 1990s, guns were responsible for over 80 percent of teen homicides in 2009 and were the most common suicide method among teens.[40] The AAP believes pediatricians should discuss guns and gun safety with parents before babies are born and at children's annual exams.[41] It also advocates for, among other things, more background checks, an assault weapons ban, and federal research on gun violence.[42][43]


The AAP warns of possible marijuana damage to children and adolescents.[44] In states that have already legalized marijuana, the Academy recommends that pediatricians and regulators treat it as they would with tobacco. The Academy does support "decriminalization" of marijuana—reductions in the penalties for its use and possession—in combination with an increased commitment to substance-abuse treatment. The Academy also recommends changing marijuana from a DEA Schedule 1 to a DEA Schedule 2 to facilitate research into pharmaceutical uses.[45]

School start times for adolescents[edit]

Recognizing that insufficient sleep in adolescents is an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as academic success, the American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times no earlier than 8:30 a.m. to allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5–9.5 hours) and to improve physical and mental health, safety, academic performance, and quality of life. Although the AAP acknowledges that numerous factors may impair the amount and/or quality of sleep in adolescents—among them, biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands—it considers school start times before 8:30 a.m. ("earlier school start times") to be a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, together with circadian rhythm disruption. It also recognizes that a substantial body of research has demonstrated that delaying the start of the school day is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to the physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement of students—including reduced obesity risk, rates of depression, and drowsy driving crashes as well as improved academic performance and quality of life.[46] Later start times also result in less frequent tardiness.[47]

Abusive head trauma[edit]

There is limited medical controversy surrounded the AAP regarding "abusive head trauma".[48] The current skepticism is not whether violent shaking, or shaking with slamming, is dangerous to infants or children, but of how the scientific information is used in the legal processes. The AAP updated its policy paper in 2020. In the updated policy paper, the APP states "The AAP continues to affirm the dangers and harms of shaking infants, continues to embrace the 'shaken baby syndrome' diagnosis as a valid subset of the AHT diagnosis, and encourages pediatric practitioners to educate community stakeholders when necessary."[49]

Statins for high cholesterol in children[edit]

AAP and the American Heart Association recommended statins for children as young as eight years with high lipid concentrations and for children as young as two years with major cardiovascular risk factors. The AAP was criticized for "fear that it will open the way for drug companies to bombard anxious parents with ads promoting these and other products and increase the number of parents insisting on prescriptions for their children. The ease of popping pills should not distract parents, health professionals, or policy makers from the more arduous tasks of cutting back on junk foods, promoting healthy diets, and putting physical education back into the schools."[50]


AAP recommends that tobacco control programs should change the image of tobacco by telling the truth about the substance.  This includes prohibiting tobacco advertising and promotion that is accessible to children, as well as point of sale advertising, product placements in movies and other entertainment media, and promotion in print or internet based media accessible to youth.  Advertising and promotion has been shown to be a cause of tobacco use initiation in adolescents.[51]

AAP supports a minimum purchasing age of 21 years for tobacco products. Increasing age of purchase has been shown to decrease youth smoking rates.  Younger age of starting tobacco use leads to lower the rates of ever stopping tobacco use.[52]

In addition to comprehensive smoking bans in workplaces and public areas, smoking in multi-unit housing should be prohibited

Transgender children[edit]

In 2018, the AAP issued a policy statement putting forward a model of "gender affirmative care".[53][54] Gender affirmative care is based in the idea that "transgender identities and diverse gender expressions do not constitute a mental disorder", that "variations in gender identity and expression are normal aspects of human diversity, and binary definitions of gender do not always reflect emerging gender identities", that "gender identity evolves as an interplay of biology, development, socialization, and culture" and that "if a mental health issue exists, it most often stems from stigma and negative experiences rather than being intrinsic to the child".[55] The AAP also describe in this policy "conversion" or "reparative" therapy as "unsuccessful", "deleterious" and "outside the mainstream of traditional medical practice". Finally, the AAP recommends that youth identifying as transgender have access to comprehensive and development-appropriate healthcare provided in safe and inclusive clinics but also that family based therapy be available. The AAP also recommend that the medical field and federal government prioritize research that is dedicated to improving the quality of evidence-based care for transgender youth.[55]

In early 2022, five AAP members proposed Resolution 27, which called for a review on the evidence for transgender youth healthcare and called for an update to the AAP's 2018 policy statement on gender affirmative care. The resolution was proposed again in August 2022 but failed to pass. The physicians who proposed Resolution 27 claimed that they were being sidelined and that the AAP changed its processes to block discussion of the resolution. In response, the AAP said that its process worked as it should have and that Resolution 27 did not pass because the majority of AAP members did not agree with the resolution. One of the authors of Resolution 27 works with Genspect, a gender critical organisation.[56]

In July 2022, Genspect asked the AAP for a "non-partisan and systematic review of evidence" to support gender affirmative care,[57] adding that "Many of our children have received this care and are anything but thriving."[57] The AAP said it is updating its statement "Providing affirmative clinical care",[57] adding that "Robust evidence demonstrates that access to gender-affirming care decreases risk of suicidal ideations, improves mental health, and improves the overall health and well-being of transgender and gender-diverse youth."[57]


Brush, Book, Bed[edit]

Brush, Book, Bed (BBB) is an American Academy of Pediatrics program aimed at improving children's health by creating a nighttime routine of brushing the child's teeth, reading together, and setting a bedtime. It was developed to help pediatricians communicate a simple message to families.[58][59][60][61]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Contacting the American Academy of Pediatrics". American Academy of Pediatrics. May 25, 2004. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  2. ^ "Pediatric History Center". American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  3. ^ "AAP Facts: Membership". American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  4. ^ "FAAP Certification". American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  5. ^ "Departments & Divisions". American Academy of Pediatrics. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  6. ^ "AAP Facts: Publications". American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  7. ^ "AAP News". American Academy of Pediatrics. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  8. ^ "AAP Journals: Pediatrics – The Flagship Journal of the AAP". American Academy of Pediatrics. Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  9. ^ "Children and COVID-19: State-Level Data Report". American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  10. ^ American Academy of Pediatrics and the Children's Hospital Association (September 17, 2020). Children and COVID-19: State Data Report (PDF) (Report). American Academy of Pediatrics. pp. 9–11. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  11. ^ "Advocacy & Policy". American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  12. ^ Health, Council on Child and Adolescent (May 1, 1988). "Age Limits of Pediatrics". Pediatrics. 81 (5): 736. doi:10.1542/peds.81.5.736. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 3357740. S2CID 245164191.
  13. ^ Hardin, Amy Peykoff; Hackell, Jesse M.; Medicine, Committee on Practice and Ambulatory (September 1, 2017). "Age Limit of Pediatrics". Pediatrics. 140 (3): e20172151. doi:10.1542/peds.2017-2151. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 28827380.
  14. ^ "National Academy and Affiliated State Chapters Support Pediatricians in Improving Asthma Care, Leading to Better Guideline Adherence and Disease Control, Fewer Acute Episodes". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. June 5, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  15. ^ "AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats for Children". American Academy of Pediatrics. August 30, 2018. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  16. ^ a b Durbin, D. R.; Durbin, DR (March 21, 2011). "Child Passenger Safety". Pediatrics. 127 (4): 788–793. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0213. PMID 21422088.
  17. ^ a b Durbin, Dennis R.; Hoffman, Benjamin D. (November 2018). "Child Passenger Safety". Pediatrics. 142 (5): e20182461. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-2461. PMID 30166367. S2CID 52131066.
  18. ^ "Pediatricians drop age limit for rear-facing car seats". CNN. August 30, 2018. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  19. ^ "New car seat guidelines for rear-facing seats are designed to save lives". All the Moms – A USA Today Publication. August 31, 2018. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  20. ^ "AAP Updates Recommendation on Car Seats for Children". American Academy of Pediatrics. August 30, 2018. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  21. ^ Kamenetz, Anya (June 29, 2020). "U.S. Pediatricians Call for In-Person School This Fall". NPR.
  22. ^ a b Kamenetz, Anya (July 10, 2020). "Nation's Pediatricians Walk Back Support for In-Person School". NPR.
  23. ^ Prior, Ryan (June 23, 2020). "Physicians group calls for legislation to regulate digital advertising and its effect on kids". CNN.
  24. ^ Rabin, Roni (August 27, 2012). "Benefits of Circumcision Are Said to Outweigh Risks". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  25. ^ Brown, Eryn (August 26, 2012). "Pediatricians' Group Shifts in Favor of Circumcision". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  26. ^ Tanner, Lindsey (August 27, 2012). "Circumcision Benefits Outweigh Risks and Insurers Should Pay; Pediatricians Revise Stance". Associated Press (via National Post). Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  27. ^ a b American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision (August 27, 2012). "Circumcision Policy Statement". Pediatrics. 130 (3): 585–586. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-1989. PMID 22926180. All policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years after publication unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or before that time.
  28. ^ a b c Aigrain, Yves; Barauskas, Vidmantas; Bjarnason, Ragnar; Boddy, Su-Anna; Czauderna, Piotr; de Gier, Robert P.E.; de Jong, Tom P.V.M.; Fasching, Günter; Fetter, Willem; Gahr, Manfred; Graugaard, Christian; Greisen, Gorm; Gunnarsdottir, Anna; Hartmann, Wolfram; Havranek, Petr; Hitchcock, Rowena; Huddart, Simon; Janson, Staffan; Jaszczak, Poul; Kupferschmid, Christoph; Lahdes-Vasama, Tuija; Lindahl, Harry; MacDonald, Noni; Markestad, Trond; Märtson, Matis; Nordhov, Solveig Marianne; Pälve, Heikki; Petersons, Aigars; Quinn, Feargal; Qvist, Niels; Rosmundsson, Thrainn; Saxen, Harri; Söder, Olle; Stehr, Maximilian; von Loewenich, Volker C.H.; Wallander, Johan; Wijnen, Rene (April 2013). Frisch, Morten (ed.). "Cultural Bias in the AAP's 2012 Technical Report and Policy Statement on Male Circumcision". Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. 131 (4): 796–800. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2896. PMID 23509170.
  29. ^ a b Svoboda, J Steven; Van Howe, Robert S (July 2013). "Out of step: fatal flaws in the latest AAP policy report on neonatal circumcision". Journal of Medical Ethics. 39 (7): 434–441. doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-101346. PMID 23508208. S2CID 39693618.
  30. ^ Stehr, M (September 16, 2013). "Präventive Zirkumzision - Europäische Ärzte zweifeln AAP-Report an" [Preventive circumcision - European doctors doubt AAP report]. Aktuelle Urologie (in German). 44 (5): 337–338. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1356849. PMID 24043524.
  31. ^ Emmons, Sasha (August 27, 2012). "AAP: Health benefits of circumcision outweigh the risks". CNN. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  32. ^ Rochman, Bonnie (August 27, 2012). "Circumcision: Pediatricians Say Benefits Trump Risks". Time. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  33. ^ The AAP Task Force on Circumcision 2012 (July 2013). "The AAP Task Force on Neonatal Circumcision: a call for respectful dialogue". Journal of Medical Ethics. 39 (7): 442–443. doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-101456. PMID 23508207.
  34. ^ Jenssen BP, Walley SC, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Tobacco Control (2019). "E-cigarettes and similar devices". Pediatrics. 143 (2): e20183652. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3652. PMC 6644065. PMID 30835247.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  35. ^ Belluck, Pam (May 6, 2010). "Group Backs Ritual 'Nick' as Female Circumcision Option". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  36. ^ "Joint RCOG/RCPCH statement on the AAP policy statement on FGM". Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. May 12, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  37. ^ "American Academy of Pediatrics withdraws policy statement on female genital cutting". American Academy of Pediatrics. May 27, 2010. Archived from the original on October 13, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  38. ^ Belluck, Pam (May 26, 2010). "Doctors Reverse Stand on Circumcision". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  39. ^ "AAP Issues New Guidance on Genetic Testing of Children". American Academy of Pediatrics. February 21, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
  40. ^ Pittman, Genevra (October 18, 2012). "Pediatricians call for strict gun laws to protect kids". Reuters. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  41. ^ Rho, Helena (February 1, 2013). "The Pediatricians vs. the NRA: How the gun lobby is trying to gag doctors from talking about kids and guns". Slate. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  42. ^ Viebeck, Elise (April 29, 2013). "Pediatricians to push for gun control on Capitol Hill". The Hill. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  43. ^ "American Academy of Pediatrics Gun Violence Policy Recommendations" (PDF). January 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  44. ^ Committee on Substance Abuse; Committee on Adolescence (January 26, 2015). "The Impact of Marijuana Policies on Youth: Clinical, Research, and Legal Update". Pediatrics. 135 (3): 584–587. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-4146. PMID 25624383. S2CID 42875063.
  45. ^ "American Academy of Pediatrics Reaffirms Opposition to Legalizing Marijuana for Recreational or Medical Use". American Academy of Pediatrics. January 26, 2015. Archived from the original on April 26, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  46. ^ Adolescent Sleep Working Group; Committee on Adolescence (2014). "School Start Times for Adolescents". Pediatrics. 134 (3): 642–9. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-1697. PMC 8194457. PMID 25156998.
  47. ^ Hale, Lauren; Troxel, Wendy; Buysse, Daniel J. (2020). "Sleep Health: An Opportunity for Public Health to Address Health Equity". Annual Review of Public Health. 41: 81–99. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094412. PMC 7944938. PMID 31900098.
  48. ^ Narang, Sandeep (October 1, 2016). "Acceptance of Shaken Baby Syndrome and Abusive Head Trauma as Medical Diagnoses". Journal of Pediatrics. 177: 273–278. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.06.036. PMID 27458075.
  49. ^ Narang, Sandeep (April 1, 2020). "Abusive Head Trauma in Infants and Children". Pediatrics. 145 (4): e20200203. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-0203. PMID 32205464.
  50. ^ Tanne, Janice Hopkins (July 19, 2008). "US paediatricians and cardiologists are criticised for recommending statins for children". BMJ. 337 (7662): 134–135. doi:10.1136/bmj.a813. PMC 2483893. PMID 18632713.
  51. ^ Farber HJ, Walley SC, Groner JA, Nelson KE (2015). "Clinical practice policy to protect children from tobacco, nicotine, and tobacco smoke". Pediatrics. 136 (5): 1008–1017. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-3108. PMID 26504137. S2CID 23285419.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  52. ^ Farber HJ, Groner J, Walley S, Nelson K (2015). "Protecting children from tobacco, nicotine, and tobacco smoke". Pediatrics. 136 (5): e1439-1467. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-3110. PMID 26504135. S2CID 31575284.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  53. ^ "Pediatricians group recommends 'affirmative care' for transgender youth". NBC News.
  54. ^ Klass, Perri (October 15, 2018). "Helping Pediatricians Care for Transgender Children". The New York Times.
  55. ^ a b Rafferty, Jason; Health, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family; Adolescence, Committee On; Section on Lesbian, Gay (October 1, 2018). "Ensuring Comprehensive Care and Support for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Children and Adolescents". Pediatrics. 142 (4): e20182162. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-2162. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 30224363.
  56. ^ "AAP Stands By Policy on Gender-Affirming Care for Trans Youth". MedPage Today. August 23, 2022. Retrieved August 29, 2022.
  57. ^ a b c d "Questioning America's approach to transgender health care". The Economist. July 28, 2022. Retrieved August 6, 2022.
  58. ^ Blanco, Michelle; Burton, Tracy; Takagishi, Jennifer; Law, Kimberly (May 1, 2018). "Implementation of "Brush, Book, Bed" Program in USF Resident Continuity Clinics". Pediatrics. 142 (1_MeetingAbstract): 429. doi:10.1542/peds.142.1MA5.429 (inactive July 31, 2022).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of July 2022 (link)
  59. ^ "Brushing and reading before bed". Penn Today.
  60. ^ "Brush, Book, Bed - The Best Bedtime Routine". Reach Out and Read. January 26, 2017.
  61. ^ Kitsaras, George; Allan, Julia; Pretty, Iain A. (February 6, 2020). "Bedtime Routines Intervention for Children (BRIC) using an automated text messaging system for behaviour change: study protocol for an early phase study". Pilot and Feasibility Studies. 6: 14. doi:10.1186/s40814-020-0562-y. PMC 7003486. PMID 32047647.

External links[edit]