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Nephrophyllidium crista-galli.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Menyanthaceae
Genus: Nephrophyllidium
Gilg 1895
Species: N. crista-galli
Binomial name
Nephrophyllidium crista-galli
(Menz. ex Hook.) Gilg
  • Fauria Franch.
  • Menyanthes crista-galli Menzies ex Hook.

Nephrophyllidium is a monotypic genus of aquatic flowering plants in the family Menyanthaceae. The sole species is Nephrophyllidium crista-galli. They are wetland plants with basal reniform and crenate leaves. Flowers are five-parted and white, and the petals are adorned with lateral wings and a midline keel. Nephrophyllidium is most nearly related to Menyanthes, which is very similar in habit. The genus name is derived from the kidney-shaped leaves (Greek: nephron = kidney and phyllon = leaf), and the specific epithet refers to the curled petal edges (Latin: crista galli = cockscomb).

Nephrophyllidium crista-galli is found in the Pacific Northwest of America, and in Japan, where it can be called subspecies japonicum (Franch.) Yonek. & H.Ohashi. Nephrophyllidium is commonly known as deer cabbage.

The IAPT determined that a prior synonym for the genus, Fauria Franch., too closely resembled the genus Faurea (Proteaceae), and thus conserved Nephrophyllidium as the accepted genus name.