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The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr (Greek: νεο-, neo, the prefix for "new"; and μάρτυς, martys, "witness") of the Eastern Orthodox Church was originally given to martyrs who died under heretical rulers or non-Christian rulers in the post-medieval period (the original martyrs being under pagans, mostly during the Roman period). The Greek Orthodox Church traditionally gives the title of New Martyr to those who had been tortured and executed during Ottoman rule (turkocracy) in order to avoid forced conversion to Islam. Later, various Christian churches added to the list those martyred under Islam and various modern regimes, especially Communist ones, which espoused state atheism. Officially, the era of the New Martyrs begins with the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Among those commemorated are not only those who gave their lives in martyrdom, but also those who are accounted as confessors for the Orthodox Faith.
Some New Martyrs are anonymous or known with non-Christian names, as they died without being officially baptized. According to the Orthodox belief, they were baptized in their own blood when executed.
New Martyrs under Ottoman rule
The first new martyrs were recorded after the Seljuk invasion of Asia Minor (11th century). In the Orthodox Church, the third Sunday after Pentecost is known as the "Commemoration of All New Martyrs of the Turkish Yoke."
- Ahmed the Calligrapher or Ahmed Kalfas)
- Akylina of Chalkidike
- Anthimos the Georgian
- Athanasios the Neomartyr
- Boris the Pomak
- Chrestos the Albanian
- Chrysostomos of Smyrna
- Constantin Brâncoveanu
- Constantine Hagarit
- Cosmas of Aetolia
- Cyril VI of Constantinople, ethnomartyr
- Demetrios Doukas
- Demetrios of Philadelphia
- Demetrios the Neomartyr
- Gabriel I of Pec
- Patriarch Gabriel II of Constantinople
- George of Ioannina
- George the New
- George of Kratovo (d. 1515)
- Gregory V of Constantinople
- John Calphas ("the Apprentice")
- John of Ioannina, a.k.a. John the Tailor
- John the New of Suceava
- Makarios the Monk
- Michael Mavroudis
- Niketas the Young
- Paisius and Habakkuk
- Panteleimon Dousa
- Paul of Constantinople, 6/19 April 1683
- Paul the Russian
- Theocharis of Nevsehir (Neapoli)
- Teodor of Vršac
- Theodore Gabras
- Theodore of Komogovina
- Thomas Paschidis
- Zlata of Meglen
New Martyrs under Communist rule
In the Russian Orthodox Church, the Sunday closest to 25 January (7 February on the Gregorian Calendar) is the "Sunday of the Holy New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia." The date of 25 January was chosen because that was the date in 1918 of the martyrdom of St. Vladimir (Bogoiavlensikii), Metropolitan of Kiev, who is referred to as the "Protomartyr of the communist yoke in Russia."
- Alexander Hotovitzky
- Anastasia Hendrikova
- Andronic Nikolsky
- Bishop Arcadius Ostalsky,
- Bishop Arseny Zhadanovsky, who was the last abbot of the Chudov Monastery which was also destroyed
- Bishop Basil (Preobrashensky) of Kineshma
- Archbishop Dimitry (Dobroserdov)
- Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna and Nun Barbara
- Dr. Eugene Botkin (see Romanov sainthood)
- Bishop Hermogenes (Dolganyov)
- Metropolitan Benjamin of Petrograd
- John Kochurov of Tsarskoye Selo (First martyr of the Revolution)
- Archpriest John Vostorgov
- Metropolitan Joseph, 1938
- Archimandrite Kronid Lubimov
- Archpriest Makary Kvitkin
- Margarete of Menzelinsk
- Maria of Gatchina, c. 1930
- Bishop Maxim of Serpukhov 23 June/6 July 1931
- Nicholas II of Russia with his immediate family and servants (see Romanov sainthood)
- Fr. Nicholas Zagorovsky, 1943 (confessor)
- Bishop Nikita Dilektorsky
- Nikodim of Solovki
- Archbishop Nikolay Dobronravov
- Metropolitan Peter of Krutitsy
- Metropolitan Seraphim Chichagov of St. Petersburg
- Patriarch Tikhon, 1925 (confessor)
- Vladimir Beneshevich
- Metropolitan Vladimir (Bogoyavlensky) First hierarch martyred by the Bolsheviks.
- Bishop Platon (Kulbusch)
New Martyrs under Nazism
- Alexander Schmorell, member of the White Rose resistance group
- Bishop Gorazd of Prague
- Archimandrite Grigol Peradze
- Maria Skobtsova of Paris and Ravensbrück, nun
Serbian New Martyrs
The feast of "All New Martyrs of Serbia" is celebrated on 28 June [O.S. 15 June].
New Martyrs of the Boxer Rebellion
In post-Soviet Russia
- Daniel Sysoyev Muscovite priest and missionary assassinated by an Islamist militant
- Yevgeny Rodionov, a Russian soldier who fought in First Chechen War, was taken prisoner, tortured and eventually murdered for his refusal to convert to Islam
- Derived with permission from New Martyrs at OrthodoxWiki.
- Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity, 341-43
- Vaporis, Rev. Nomikos Michael. Witnesses for Christ: Orthodox Christian Neomartyrs of the Ottoman Period 1437-1860
- Encyclopedia "Papyrus-Larousse, c. 1965, article "Νεομάρτυς", in Greek language.
- "Threskeutika", Textbook of Religion, for the 3rd year of Greek high school ("Gymnasion"), chapter 30 (b), circa 2007. In Greek language.
- Byzantinoslavica. Academia, Slovanský ústav v Praze. Byzantologická komise. 1996. p. 104.
- "Ahmed the Calligrapher". orthodoxwiki.org. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- Saint Ahmed, Synaxaristes (Compedium) of Neomartyrs, editions "Orthodoxos Kypsele" (Orthodox Bee-hive)
- "HIEROMARTYR MAXIMUS SANDOVICH". lemko.org. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Hieromonk Job Gumerov. Can One Consider the Death of Father Daniel Sysoev to be a Martyrdom? / OrthoChristian.Com". pravoslavie.ru. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Byzantine, Texas: Podcasts on New Martyr Fr. Daniel Sysoev". blogspot.ru. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- John Sanidopoulos. "MYSTAGOGY". johnsanidopoulos.com. Retrieved 24 April 2015.