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This article is about O'Connor clan. For other uses, see O'Connor (disambiguation).
Ó Conchubhair
Country Ireland
Parent house Uí Briúin Ai / Síl Muiredaig
Founder Conchobar mac Taidg Mór
Final ruler Fedlim Geancach Ó Conchobair
Current head Desmond O'Conor Don

O'Conor (Middle Irish: Ó Conchubhair; Modern Irish: Ó Conchúir), is an Irish Gaelic clan based throughout Connacht but most prominently in what is today County Roscommon, County Mayo and County Sligo. The clan name originated in the 10th century as a derivative of its founder Conchobar mac Taidg Mór. They descend in the paternal line from the Connachta's Uí Briúin Ai. They were originally kings of Connacht in general and of the Síol Muireadaigh; as members of the Uí Briúin were kinsmen of the Mac Diarmata and Ó Flaithbertaigh amongst others. In the 13th century, the Normans began to make gains in Connacht; particularly the Burkes, to the cost of the O'Connors. They split into various smaller areas of power, for instance the O'Connor Don and Roe ruled in County Roscommon while the Ó Conchobhair Sligigh ruled in County Sligo. The current O'Conor Don is Desmond O'Conor Don (b. 22 September 1938) who lives in Rotherfield, East Sussex in England.[1]

Naming conventions[edit]

Male Daughter Wife (Long) Wife (Short)
Ó Conchubhair Ní Chonchubhair Bean Uí Chonchubhair Uí Chonchubhair
Ó Conchúir Ní Chonchúir Bean Uí Chonchúir Uí Chonchúir


The Ó Conchubhair Donn is the senior head of a lineage which provided about one hundred Kings of Connacht, thirty Chief of the Name and eleven High Kings of Ireland, the last of them being Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair (1088–1156), and his son Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (c. 1115–1198).

During the late 14th century, the Ó Conchubhair dynasty grouped into two main divisions, one led by Toirdealbhach Ruadh, the other by Toirdealbhach Óg (also called Toirdealbhach Donn), both in the seventh generation of descent from Cathal Crobhderg. From these descended the families of Ó Conchubhair Ruadh and Ó Conchubhair Donn, the former died out.

The great Irish scholar John O'Donavan once said of the O'Conor's.... "No family in Ireland claims greater antiquity and no family in Europe, royal or noble, can trace its descent through so many generations of legitimate ancestors." [2]

O'Conor Nash of Clonalis[edit]

On the death in 1981 of Rev. Charles O'Conor Don SJ, Clonalis House, the ancestral seat of the O'Conor Don Family, passed to his sister Gertrude O'Conor Nash instead of his cousin and senior male successor as Chief of the Name and Prince of Connacht Denis O'Donor Don (1912–2000). Consequently, not for the first time, the family title and family seat were separated, although remaining within the wider O'Conor family.

The O'Conor Nash family now reside at Clonalis House where they maintain the O'Conor archives.

High Kings of Ireland[edit]

In Gaelic tradition, when a king was inaugurated he symbolically married the soil over which he was to rule and a sacred stone was used for this purpose. The stone acted as the Kings bride and the ceremony was known as "Banais Ri" (" the Kings marriage"). The stone at Clonalis was probably used to inaugurate up to 30 O’Conor Kings. The ceremony took place at Carnfree near Tulsk in Roscommon, about 12 miles from Clonalis on a hill overlooking the 5 counties which formed the Kingdom of Connacht.

The ceremony was highly ritual and was performed in front of the Bishops, Abbots and sub-kings of Connacht. Part of the ceremony required the King to put his foot in the footstep which is carved in the top of the stone, probably as an act of consummation. The Coronation Stone was only one of a number of such stones that existed in the past.

The Coronation Stone is resonant of a time when the O’Conors were Kings, not only of their province Connacht, but for a time, of Ireland. Without doubt the greatest O’Conor King was Turlough Mor O’Conor, High King of Ireland in the 12th century AD and who left us many reminders of his reign.

The most significant of these is the Cross of Cong, commissioned in 1123 to carry a piece of the ‘True Cross’ around Ireland, as the King processed through the nation to accept the submission and tribute of the provincial rulers. This magnificent work of art is made of oak sheathed in metal. The front and back are decorated in bronze panels of animals interlacing and the central crystal on the front of the Cross is surmounted by a panel of spiral filigree in gold. Around the margins are settings of glass and enamel enclosed in circular frames.

The sides of the cross are covered with silver and bear inscriptions in Latin and Irish, one of which reads " a prayer for Turlough Mor, King of Erin for whom this cross was made".

Turlough Mor should also be remembered for the great Chancel Arch in St Mary's Cathedral, Tuam and the High Cross in Tuam, Co Galway, both of which he commissioned. On his death in 1156, Turlough Mor O’Conor was buried beside the High Alter in St Kieran's Church at Clonmacnoise, the famous medieval Monastic City on the banks of the River Shannon.

On Turlough Mor's death he was succeeded by his son Rory, as King of Connacht. It was not until the year 1166 that Rory, as the most powerful provincial King was recognised as High King of Ireland. However events were moving against Rory. Almost 100 years after the Normans had successfully invaded Britain in 1066, they were now turning their attention to Ireland. The King of Leinster, who had been expelled from his kingdom by Rory's father, Turlough Mor, persuaded the Normans to help restore him to the throne of Leinster.

On May 1, 1169 a small force of 30 knights, 60 men in half armour and 300 archers and foot soldiers landed at Bannow Bay in Wexford, in the heart of the kingdom of Leinster. This was the first day of a new chapter in Ireland's history that was to last 800 years. In the months ahead the Normans reinforced their bridgehead but while Rory O’Conor had a number of chances of easily defeating the Normans he prevaricated and eventually was unable to resist the invaders.

Rory, dejected by his failure to expel the Normans, abdicated in favour of his son Conor Moinmoy and retired to the Abbey at Cong, which he had previously founded. There Rory lived out the rest of his life as a monk. So it was that the last High King of Ireland died as a monk in the year 1198 and was buried at the Abbey.

With Rory's death the Irish monarchical system ended. The monarchical system had governed Ireland for almost a millennium. Thirty years after his death, Rory's body was reburied beside his father's at Clomacnoise.[3]

Kings of Connaught[edit]

After Rory's death another great O’Connor King was to appear. This time not as a King of Ireland but a powerful King of Connacht. Cathal Crovedearg (Charles of the Wine Red Hand), the half brother of Rory and another son of Turlough Mor, was inaugurated on the stone at Clonalis in 1201. In a reign which was to last twenty three years he did much to stabilize the kingdom of Connacht after the turbulent period of Rory's Kingship. During Cathal's reign he suppressed his Irish rivals as well as manipulating and often outwitting the Normans. The confidence he exhibited and the strength of his reign is evidenced by the large amount of development he undertook. In all he founded twelve Abbeys, some of which can still be seen today, including Ballintubber Abbey which he established 1216. This abbey is still in use today and Mass has been celebrated for nearly 800 years. Its architecture is interesting as it illustrates the transition from Irish Romanesque to Gothic. It has been said that the O’Conors seemed to be "more concerned with the salvation of their souls than the grandeur of their residences". Perhaps Cathal Crovedearg did more than any other king to foster this image. Of the castles associated with the Family at this period the most significant is Roscommon Castle. Built by the Norman Knight, Robert d’Ufford between 1269 and 1276, d’Ufford attempted to construct the castle in the kingdom of the then King, Hugh O’Conor. On two occasions his castle was knocked down but in 1276 the castle was fully constructed only to be captured by Hugh shortly thereafter. It remained an O’Conor stronghold for over 200 years until the time of Queen Elizabeth I, when one of her generals, Sir Henry Sidney captured the Castle from Duirmuid O’Conor Don in 1569. The celebrated Abbey of Roscommon is also to be found in Roscommon Town. It was founded by Phelim O’Conor who reigned from 1233 to 1265. The Abbey was built for the Dominican friars and dedicated to the Virgin Mary in 1257. The magnificent tomb of Phelim O’Conor is located in the Abbey, where it is guarded to this day by Gallowglasses in chain-mail, carved in base relief on the side of the tomb. Another O’Conor castle of this period is Ballintubber Castle. This huge keepless castle, which is located in the village of Ballintubber some 6 miles from Clonalis, is first referred to in the annals of Loch Ce in 1311. It is a moated castle with curtain walls nearly 1000 ft long ranging up to 22 ft in height. Within the protection of the walls was a bawn or badan (a central area) of 1.5 acres. It is thought that the bawn at one stage contained several rows of houses. This castle remained the principal seat of the O’Conor Don until well into 17th century. It was constructed by Hugh O’Conor and it would be the earliest remaining example of an early Irish built stone castle. This is significant because the Irish of this period did not build their fortifications in stone but in timber. Ballintubber was lost to the O’Conors in the 17th century during the Cromwellian period. It was however reacquired by Charles Owen O’Conor Don in the 19th century. If the 13th century saw the O’Conor's relatively strong and confident within their own Kingdom, the 14th century witnessed a slow decline in their power and influence. This happened for two reasons; firstly the pressure exerted by the Norman warlords on the O’Conor territories and secondly internal strife within the clan. The decline continued for four hundred years and culminated during the 18th century with one of the descendants living in a bahaun or peasants mud cottage in Kilmactraney, Co Sligo – totally landless and destitute like the majority of his countrymen.[4]

O'Conors in the 18th century[edit]

The 18th century was a period of contrasts in Ireland. Although 80% of the population was Catholic with significant minorities of Presbyterians and Methodists, laws collectively known as the Penal Laws were introduced to economically suppress those not conforming to the Established Church. Non Conformists had very restricted land and other property rights, no access to formal education, were forbidden to enter the professions and were prohibited from bearing arms. For those who espoused the Established Faith, the Penal Law period proved a time of great prosperity for a number of reasons. By comparison with the troubled 17th century, which saw two long and bloody rebellions, the 18th century was a relatively peaceful period. With the gradual introduction of the potato, a food of higher calorific value, the population of Ireland doubled from 1.5 million in 1700 to 3.0 million during the course of the century and to an estimated 8m by 1840. As the result, land rents increased by a factor of at least ten, agricultural Rates by a factor of five but wages by a factor of only two. The farm diaries of Charles O’Conor of Ballenagare for 1737 show that daily labourers wages were 4d (about US$2 cents). A survey in Co Roscommon in 1831 recorded labour costs had risen to 8d (US$4 cents). The effect on landowners was significant. The two thousand owners of private estates enjoyed great prosperity in the 18th century. Landlords enjoyed political stability, their economic interests were protected in the absence of rebellion, their incomes rose substantially due to higher rents and agricultural prices from their landholdings. During the 18th and early 19th century it is estimated that 700 large country houses were constructed. Almost without exception the revenues which funded the construction of such properties, purchased their contents and financed their maintenance, were derived from agricultural rents. Of the three major estates in Co Roscommon owned by Lords Lorton, Hartland and Mountsandford, each on average owned over 24,000 acres producing an annual rental income based on calculations of not less than £1.2m (US$1.35m) each. But the affect of the Penal Laws on the Catholic majority was that by the end of the 18th century, Catholics who numbered over 80% of the population of Ireland, held just 8% of the land. Relatively few conversions to the established Church took place among landless Catholics despite many political and economic inducements. However some 4000 wealthier Catholics converted including some members of the old Gaelic aristocracy. The O’Conors, like the majority of their countrymen, remained Catholic and clung to their Gaelic traditions. The Denis O’Conor referred to in the inscription on the gravestone is known as "The Heir to Nothing" for his ancestral lands had been confiscated . He lived in near destitution in that bahaun in Co Sligo where he hired himself out for a shilling a day. He is reputed to have said to his sons on one occasion " never be impudent to the poor, boys. I was the son of a gentleman but you are the sons of plowman". Denis was nephew and heir to Major Owen O’Conor, the last master of Ballintubber Castle who had taken up arms against Cromwell. Owen had mortgaged his lands to finance three troop of cavalry for the cause of James II and when that cause failed, was captured and imprisoned in Chester Castle, England where he died a prisoner in 1692. Although living in poverty, Denis retained the dream of recovering his ancestral lands and in 1720, with the help of his Uncle, Counselor Terence McDonagh he fought a law case in Dublin. Tradition has it that he was so impoverished he walked to Dublin barefoot. The result of his action was that he was restored to a small portion of his ancestral lands, approximately 500 acres of boggy land around the village of Ballanagare, Co Roscommon. There he built a small house, Ballanagare House, which soon became a rendezvous for the ill fated Catholic Gentry of Portrait at Clonalis of Countess Isabella O'Rourke, maid of honour to James II and mother-in-law of Denis O'Conor of Connacht. It was said that "his hospitable door was never shut against those in misfortune or distress". To the House came the great bard Turlough Carolan, last of the great Irish Bards, Thadeus O’Rorke, former Chaplain to Prince Eugene of Savoy and now the fugitive Bishop of Killala. Others who resided in the house were Countess Isabella O’Rorke, Denis’ Mother-in-law, and Maid of Honour to James II in the King's exiled Court in Saint Germaine en Laye. Inspired by the atmosphere of this sanctuary the Bard, Turlough Carolan said one day "I think when I am among the O’Conors at Ballanagare the harp has the old sound in it ". "No" said Carolan's Harp - still in the possession of the O'Conors at Clonalis McCabe, another Harpist of repute "but your harp has the old madness in it". Carolan captured the spirit of these times by composing planxties or airs in honour of Denis O’Conor, his wife Maire O’Rorke and their son Charles O’Conor of Ballanagare. On his death Carolan's Harp was left in the possession of the O’Conors and it is still at Clonalis. Also at Clonalis is the chalice of Bishop Thadeus O’Rorke who was consecrated Bishop in secret, in Newgate Prison in Dublin at the height of the Penal Laws in 1706. His pectoral cross, liturgical vestments and his Episcopal ring, presented to him by Prince Eugene are also at Clonalis.[5]

Penal laws and Catholic emancipation[edit]

Denis O’Conor died in 1750 and was succeeded by his son Charles, who is now regarded by scholars of the 18th century as perhaps the greatest Irish, as opposed to Anglo Irish, intellect of his time. Charles was born in Kilmactraney in Co Sligo in 1710 and made an outstanding contribution to Irish culture and politics during the 18th century. The aims of his life were to improve the conditions of his co-religionists by peaceful means and to preserve what remained of the ancient culture and literature of Gaelic Ireland. He was a co-founder in 1755 of The Catholic Committee, which had as its principal objective, the Emancipation of Catholics in Ireland. As a diarist, politician, antiquarian and historian, he made an outstanding contribution notwithstanding the fact that as a Catholic he was denied any formal education. His correspondence with intellectuals of his day such as Dr Johnson, Count Vallency, Lord Taafe and Dr Leyland form the foundation of the 100,000 documents which now comprise the O’Conor archives at Clonalis. Charles had the satisfaction of seeing a relaxation of the Penal Laws but not before an attempt was made by his younger brother Hugh to deprive him of his small Estate at Ballanagare. Hugh converted to the established Church and issued a legal writ with a view to obtaining a preferential title to the O’Conor lands. This was possible under the Penal Laws of the time. Writing of this event in 1756 Charles said "my poor father was finally caste on the shore on a broken plank (a reference to the poor lands re granted to his father Denis in 1720). I have succeeded to him. This is the plank which from it is now hoped I may be driven by a Penal Law. I struggle to keep my hold and if I am left nothing to inherit but the religion and misfortunes of a family long on the decline, the victim is prepared for the sacrifice resignedly indeed though not willingly." At the turn of the 19th century Charles’ grandson Owen O’Conor became active in the struggle for civil and religious liberty and in 1793 he was delegate for Roscommon at the Catholic National Convention where he was a fervent supporter of Daniel O’Connell. In 1820 he succeeded to the title of O’Conor Don and inherited the Estate of Clonalis some 5 miles away from Ballanagare to which he moved. When Catholic Emancipation came about in 1829 and Catholics were allowed to vote and take seats in Parliament, Owen O’Conor was elected first Catholic Member of Parliament for Roscommon but died just 2 years later. On his death he was succeeded by his son and then grandson as members of Parliament for Co Roscommon.[6]

Family tree I[edit]

  • Kg. = King of Connacht
                         Tairrdelbach, King of Connacht & Ard Rí na hÉireann, 1106 –1156.
   |                                                                         |
   |                                                                         |
   Ruaidrí, King of Connnacht & Ard Rí na hÉireann, c.1115–1198.       Cathal Crobhdearg, 1153–1224, Kg. 1202–24.
                                                                      =Mor Muman Ní Briain, d. 1218
    |                                                                         |
    |                                                                         |
    Áed, Kg. Conn. 1224–28.                                              Fedlimid, Kg. Conn 1230–31; 1233–65. died 1265.
    |                                                                         |
    |________________________________ __________|___________
    |            |                  |                               |                    |
    |            |                  |                               |                    |
    Cathal Dall Ruaidrí       Toirrdelbach, Kg. 1249–50.          Áed, kg. 1265–74.  Áed Muimnech, Kg. 1274–80.
    |            |                  |
    |            |                  |
    Áed,         Éoghan, Kg. 1274 Tadg Ruad, Kg. 1274-8.
  Kg. 1274.      |
    |                               |
    |                               |
    Donnchad Áed, Kg. 1293–1309.
    |                               |
    |                               |__________________________________________________
    Ruaidrí na Fed                  |                                |                |
   Kg. 1316;d. 1321.                |                                |                |
                                    Fedlimid, Kg.1310–15;16.  Cathal na bhFeadh Toirredlbach, Kg 1317–18;24–42;43–45.
                                    |                             died 1361.          |
                                    |                                                 |
                             Ó Conchubhair Ruadh                                Ó Conchubhair Donn

Family tree II[edit]

  • Kg. = King of Connacht
                         Toirredlbach, Kg 1317–18;24–42;43–45.
| | | | Aedh, Kg. 1345–50; 51–53; 53–56 Ruaidhri, Kg. 1368–1384 | | | ______|_________________
| | | | | | Toirdhealbach Donn, Kg. 1384–1406 Cathal, kg.1406–1439 Eoghan, d.1421
__|______________________________________ |
| | | | | | Aedh, Kg. 1439–61 Feidhlimid Gengcach, Kg. 1461–75 Tadc Ua Ruaidhri, Kg. 1475–76 | | |_____________________ | | | | Ruaidhri, d.1473 Aedh Eoghan Caoch, Kg. 1476–1495 | __________|_____________________
| | | |
Toirrdhealbach Og Conchobar Cairbre Aodh
d.1503 d.1546
Diarmait, d.1585
Sir Hugh/Aedh Ó Conchobhair Donn mac Diarmada mac Cairbre

Family tree III[edit]

    Sir Hugh/Aedh Ó Conchobhair Donn mac Diarmada mac Cairbre, d. 1627.
   =Mary ni Brian Ó Rourke, King of Breifne
    |         |          |                    |
    |         |          |                    |
    Calvach Aedh Óg Cathal (1597–1634) Bryan Roe
                        =Anne Mulloy
    |                                |
    |                                |
    Major Owen of Belangare Cathal Óg of Belangare
        dspm 1692                   =Finola Ni Fhlionn of Ballinlough
                                     Denis O'Conor Don (1674–1750)
                                    =Máire, inion Colonel Tiernan Ó Rourke
      |         |            |                                 |            |          |
      |         |            |                                 |            |          |
     Daniel Thomas, Charles O'Conor Don (1710–91) Aedh/Hugh Elinor Anne
    d. 1769 Officer       =Catherine ni Fagan
             in France       |
    |           |            |       |                                  |              |
    |           |            |       |                                  |              |
    Dominick Alexander Jane Denis O'Conor Don (1732–1804) Charles Bridget d.1777
    dsp 1795 d. unm 1820          =Catherine Browne of Cloonfad                    = Myles MacDermot
    |                                |               |            |        |      |
    |                                |               |            |        |      |
    Owen O'Conor Don, 1763–1831.  Rev. Charles Matthew Catherine Mary Elizabeth
  =Jane Moore of Mount Browne 1764–1828 1773–1844
   |                                |        |         |
   |                                |        |         |
   Denis O'Conor Don (1794–1847) Edward Jane Catherine
  =Mary Blake of Tower Hill
   |                                                                                       |
   |                                                                                       |
   Charles Owen O'Conor Don, M.P. (1838–1906) Denis Maurice O'Conor Don, M.P. (1840–83)
  =Georgina Perry                                                                          |
   |                                                                                       |
   |______________________________________________________________                         |
   |                     |                |                     |                          |
   |                     |                |                     |                          |
   Charles (1869–1917) Owen (1870–1943) Hugh (1872–1939) Roderick (1872–73) Charles O'Conor Don (1878–1963)
                                         =Ellen More Ó Ferrall                    =Evelyn Lowry-Corry
                                          |                                                |
    ______________________________________|_______________________________________         |
    |         |        |               |          |         |         |          |         |
    |         |        |               |          |         |         |          |         |
   Charles Mary Gertrude Eva Josephine Helen Fearga Georgina     |
   1906–81.  d.1953.  =Rupert Nash d.1989.    d.1980.   b.1910.   d.1986.    b.1916.     |
                       |                                                                   |
    ___________________|                                                                   |
    |         |        |                                                       Denis Armar O'Conor Don, 1912–2000.
    |         |        |                                                      =Elizabeth Marris  =Rosemay O'Connell Hewett
 Latatia Rosalind Pyers O'Conor-Nash                                        |
                                                                               |         |       |      |
                                                                               |         |       |      |
                                                                            Desmond      Kieran         Rory  Gail (d. aged 13 13)
                                                              =Virginia Anne Williams    = Karena Morton
                                                                               |                  |
                                                              ___________|_________  Eoin Roderick - Hugh Armar
                                                             |                  |           
                                                          Emma       Philip        Denise
                                                                     =Rebecca Jane Eagan
                                                 |             |             |                 
                                             Eochy Piers Adelaide Barley

Chiefs of the Name[edit]

  • Toirdhealbhach Óg Donn mac Aodha meic Toirdhealbhaigh, d. 9 December 1406.
  • Cathal mac Ruaidhri Ó Conchobhair Donn, d. 19 March 1439.
  • Aodh mac Toirdhealbhaigh Óig Ó Conchobhair Donn, d.15 May 1461.
  • Feidhlimidh Geangcach mac Toirdhealbhaigh Óig Ó Conchobhair Donn, d. 1474 – last fully recognised King of Connacht.
  • Tadhg mac Eoghain Ó Conchobhair Donn, d. 1476.
  • Eoghan Caoch mac Feidhlimidh Gheangcaigh Ó Conchobhair Donn, d. 1485.
  • Aodh Og mac Aodh Ó Conchobhair Donn, died ?
  • Toirdhealbhach Óg mac Ruaidhri Ó Conchobhair Donn, d. 1503
  • Conchobhar mac Eoghain Chaoich Ó Conchobhair Donn, d.?
  • Cairbre mac Eoghain Chaoich Ó Conchobhair Donn, d. 1546
  • Aodh mac Eoghain Chaoich Ó Conchobhair Donn, deposed 1550
  • Diarmaid mac Cairbre Ó Conchobhair Donn, d. 1585
  • Sir Hugh/Aedh Ó Conchobhair Donn, d. 1632
  • An Calbhach mac Aedh Ó Conchobhair Donn, d. 1654 – popularly inaugurated king in 1643.
  • Hugh Óg mac Aedh Ó Conchobhair Donn, d. 1662.
  • Major Owen O'Conor Don of Belangare, d.s.p.m. 1692
  • Cathal Óg O'Conor Don of Belangare, d. 1696
  • Denis O'Conor Don, 1674–1750
  • Charles O'Conor Don, 1710–1791
  • Denis O'Conor Don of Belangare, 1732–1804
  • Owen O'Conor Don of Clonalis, 1763–1831
  • Matthew O'Conor Don, 1773–1844 – popularly acclaimed 'king' in the 1830s.
  • Denis O'Conor Don of Clonalis, 1794–1847
  • Charles Owen O'Conor Don, 1838–1906
  • Charles O'Conor Don, 1869–1917
  • Owen Phelim O'Conor Don, 1870–1943
  • Fr. Charles O'Conor Don, 1906–1981
  • Denis O'Conor Don, 1912 – 10 July 2000
  • Desmond O'Conor Don (Chairman of the British-Chile Chamber of Commerce, former banker, resides in Sussex)

Known Members of the O'Conor Don Family[edit]

Kings of Connacht


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Curley, W. Vanishing Kingdoms. Dublin. Lilliput Press.
  2. ^ tales-from-the-big-house-rte/
  3. ^ clonalis.com/oconors-kings-of-connacht-high-kings-of-ireland/
  4. ^ clonalis.com/kings-of-connacht/
  5. ^ clonalis.com/oconnor-family-in-18th-century-ireland/
  6. ^ clonalis.com/oconnor-family-penal-laws-catholic-emancipation/

External links[edit]