Bartov was born in Israel and attended Tel Aviv University and St. Antony's College, Oxford. As a historian, Bartov is most noted for his studies of the German Army in World War II. Bartov has challenged the popular view that the German Army was an apolitical force that had little involvement in war crimes or crimes against humanity in World War II. Bartov has argued that the Wehrmacht was a deeply Nazi institution that played a key role in the Holocaust in the occupied areas of the Soviet Union.
Bartov, a 1989 to 1992 Junior Harvard fellow and 2002 Guggenheim fellow, is one of the world's leading authorities on the subject of genocide. The Forward calls Bartov, “One of the foremost scholars of Jewish life in Galicia.”
- The Eastern Front, 1941-1945: German Troops and the Barbarization of Warfare, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001
- "Historians on the Eastern Front Andreas Hillgruber and Germany's Tragedy" pages 325-345 from Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Volume 16, 1987
- Hitler's Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich, Oxford Paperbacks, 1992
- Hitlers Wehrmacht. Soldaten, Fanatismus und die Brutalisierung des Krieges. (German edition) ISBN 3-499-60793-X.
- Murder in Our Midst: The Holocaust, Industrial Killing, and Representation, Oxford University Press, 1996
- Mirrors of Destruction: War, Genocide, and Modern Identity, Oxford University Press, 2002
- Germany's War and the Holocaust: Disputed Histories, Cornell University Press, 2003
- The "Jew" in Cinema: From The Golem to Don't Touch My Holocaust, Indiana University Press, 2005
- Erased: Vanishing Traces of Jewish Galicia in Present-Day Ukraine, Princeton University Press, 2007 (ISBN 978-0-691-13121-4). Paperback 2015 (ISBN 9780691166551).
- Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California,
- Berlin Prize Fellowship, American Academy in Berlin, Spring semester 2007
- Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, (2005)
- Guest of the Director Fellowship, International Research Center for Cultural Studies (IFK), Vienna, Austria (June 2004)
- John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship (2003–2004)
- Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Fellow, Harvard University (2002–2003)
- National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship for University Teachers (1996–97)
- Fraenkel Prize in Contemporary History from the Institute for Contemporary History and Wiener Library, London, for the book Murder in Our Midst (1995)
- Raoul Wallenberg Professor in Human Rights and Senior Fellow, Rutgers Center for Historical Analysis, Rutgers University (1992–94)
- Directeur d'etudes, Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Paris, France (1990)
- Junior Fellow, Society of Fellows, Harvard University (1989–92)
- French Government Scholarship at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France (1988)
- Alexander von Humboldt Fellow, Germany and France (1985–86, 1987, 1990, 1994)
- French Government Scholarship at the FIAP Language School in Paris, France (1985)
- Visiting Fellow, Davis Center for Historical Studies, Princeton University (1984)
- Rothschild Foundation Scholarship in support of studies at Oxford University (1981–82)
- Research Fellowship, German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), for work in German archives (1981)
- Research Fellowship, German Historical Institute, London, for work in German archives (1980)
- President's Fellowship, Tel-Aviv University, Israel, in support of tuition at Oxford University (1980–83)
- Fulbright Fellowship for studies as a Ph.D. candidate at Stanford University (1979)
- DAAD Scholarship at the Goethe Institute in Murnau, Bavaria, Germany (1979)
- Certificate of Exceptional Merit from the Rector of Tel-Aviv University, Israel (1978)
- Certificate of Exceptional Merit from the Rector of Tel-Aviv University, Israel (1977)
- "Bartov, Omer". vivo.brown.edu. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "Current and Former Junior Fellows by Term". www.socfell.fas.harvard.edu. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- Bildner Center Event: Omer Bartov
- Brown University German Studies
- Tracing Galicia: A Talk With Omer Bartov, History , By Joshua Cohen, Forward, December 11, 2007
- "Bartov, O.: Erased: Vanishing Traces of Jewish Galicia in Present-Day Ukraine. (eBook, Paperback and Hardcover)". press.princeton.edu. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 20, 2011.