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Openness is an overarching concept or philosophy that is characterized by an emphasis on transparency and collaboration. That is, openness refers to "accessibility of knowledge, technology and other resources; the transparency of action; the permeability of organisational structures; and the inclusiveness of participation". Openness can be said to be the opposite of closedness, central authority and secrecy.
Openness has been attributed to a wide array of approaches in very different contexts as outlined below. While there is no universally accepted definition of the overarching concept of openness, a 2017 comprehensive review concludes that:
Open terminology can refer to a higher-order concept (e.g. the ‘‘philosophy of openness’’); the nature of resources (e.g. ‘‘open data’’); the nature of processes (e.g. ‘‘open innovation’’); or the effects on specific domains (e.g. ‘‘open education’’) [...] The principles typically used to characterize this higher-order concept are: access to information and other resources; participation in an inclusive and often collaborative manner; transparency of resources and actions; and democracy or ‘‘democratization’’ such as the breaking up of exclusionary structures.
Open government is the governing doctrine which holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight.
Openness in government applies the idea of freedom of information to information held by authorities and holds that citizens should have the right to see the operations and activities of government at work. Since reliable information is requisite for accountability, freedom of access to information about the government supports government accountability and helps protect other necessary rights.
In creative works
Open content and free content both refer to creative works that lack restrictions on how people can use, modify, and distribute them. The terms derive from open source software and free software, similar concepts that refer specifically to software.
Open education refers to institutional practices and programmatic initiatives that broaden access to the learning and training traditionally offered through formal education systems. By eliminating barriers to entry, open education aids freedom of information by increasing accessibility.
Open Education advocates state people from all social classes worldwide have open access to high-quality education and resources. They help eliminate obstacles like high costs, outmoded materials, and legal instruments. These barriers impede collaboration among stakeholders. Cooperation is crucial to open education. The Open Education Consortium claims “Sharing is a fundamental attribute of education. Education means the sharing of knowledge, insights, and information with everybody. It is the foundation of new wisdom, ideas, talents, and understanding”. Open Educational Resources refer to learning materials that educators can improve and modify with permission from their publishers or authors. Creators of OERs are allowed to include a variety of items such as lesson plans, presentation slides, lecture videos, podcasts, worksheets, maps, and images.
There are legitimate tools like the Creative Commons’ licenses that students can access and use at liberty. They are allowed to translate and amend these materials. Public school teachers in the USA can share resources they developed as compliance for government-authorized standards in education. One of these is called the Common Core State Standards. Some teachers and school officials have recommended that OERs can help reduce expenses in production and distribution of course materials for primary and secondary institutions. Some teachers and school officials have recommended that OERs can help reduce expenses in production and distribution of course materials for primary and secondary institutions. Certain projects like the OER Commons as storage for open educational resources.
Open science refers to the practice of allowing peer-reviewed research articles to be available online free of charge and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Benefits of this approach include: accelerated discovery and progress as researchers are free to use and build on the findings of others, giving back to the public as much research is paid for with public funds, and greater impact for one's work due to open access articles being accessible to a bigger audience.
In information technology
In Open-source software, the user is given access to the sources such as source code. In Open-source hardware, the user gets access to sources such as design documents and blueprints. Open data is data that can be freely used and shared by anyone.
In psychology, openness to experience is one of the domains which are used to describe human personality in the Five Factor Model.
- Free association
- Free content
- Free software
- Open source
- Open access: publishing
- Open innovation
- Open education
- Open educational resources
- Open-design movement
- Open government
- Open Knowledge Foundation
- Open knowledge
- Open text
- Open gaming
- Open patent
- Open-source curriculum
- Open-source governance
- Open-source journalism
- Open-source model
- Open standard
- Openness to experience
- Secrecy: the opposite of openness
- The Open Definition
- Transparency: openness in a utilitarian view, economic openness, open economic or politic data, degree of openness, etc.
- Eco, Umberto; Anna Cancogni; David Robey (1989). The Open Work. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674639751.
- Schlagwein, Daniel; Conboy, Kieran; Feller, Joseph; Leimeister, Jan Marco; Morgan, Lorraine (2017). "Openness With and Without Information Technology: A Framework and a Brief History". Journal of Information Technology. 32 (4): 297–305. doi:10.1057/s41265-017-0049-3.
- ^ a b Peters, Michael. "The Idea of Openness: Open Education and Education for Openness". The Encyclopaedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory. Archived from the original on 1 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- ^ a b c d Schlagwein, Daniel; Conboy, Kieran; Feller, Joseph; Leimeister, Jan Marco; Morgan, Lorraine (2017). "Openness With and Without Information Technology: A Framework and a Brief History". Journal of Information Technology. 32 (4): 297–305. doi:10.1057/s41265-017-0049-3.
- ^ Lathrop, Daniel; Ruma, Laurel, eds. (February 2010). Open Government: Transparency, Collaboration and Participation in Practice. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-0-596-80435-0.
- ^ a b Birkinshaw, Patrick. "FREEDOM OF INFORMATION AND OPENNESS: FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS?". Administrative Law Review. 58 (1): 177–218. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- ^ "Definition of Free Cultural Works". Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- ^ Stallman, Richard (November 13, 2008). "Free Software and Free Manuals". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
- ^ Grossman, Lev (1998-07-18). "New Free License to Cover Content Online". Netly News. Archived from the original on 2000-06-19. Retrieved 2010-01-12.
- ^ Wiley, David (1998). "Open Content". OpenContent.org. Archived from the original on 1999-01-28. Retrieved 2012-04-17.
- ^ "What is open education?". Opensource.com. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
- ^ "The Open Education Consortium". The Global Network for Open Education. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
- ^ "What are Open Educational Resources (OERs)?". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
- ^ "About The Licenses". Creative Commons. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
- ^ "About the Standards". Common Core State Standards Initiative. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
- ^ "OER Commons". OER Commons. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
- ^ Suber, Peter. "Open Access Overview". Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- ^ "The Case for Open Access". Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- ^ Suber, Peter. "The taxpayer argument for open access". SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #65. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- ^ Harnad, Steven; Tim Brody. "Comparing the Impact of Open Access (OA) vs. Non-OA Articles in the Same Journals". D-Lib Magazine. 10. Archived from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2014.