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Aliases PRAME, CT130, MAPE, OIP-4, OIP4, preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma
External IDs HomoloGene: 48404 GeneCards: PRAME
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 22 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 22 (human)[1]
Chromosome 22 (human)
Genomic location for PRAME
Genomic location for PRAME
Band 22q11.22 Start 22,547,701 bp[1]
End 22,559,361 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PRAME 204086 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)


RefSeq (protein)


Location (UCSC) Chr 22: 22.55 – 22.56 Mb n/a
PubMed search [2] n/a
View/Edit Human

Melanoma antigen preferentially expressed in tumors is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRAME gene.[3][4][5]


This gene encodes an antigen that is predominantly expressed in human melanomas and that is recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes. It is not expressed in normal tissues, except testis. This expression pattern is similar to that of other CT antigens, such as MAGE, BAGE and GAGE. However, unlike these other CT antigens, this gene is also expressed in acute leukemias. Five alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed for this gene.[5] The PRAME gene is localized between the variable subgenes for light chain of immunoglobulins (Ig), and it is lost in B lymphocytes that rearrange specific lambda variable Ig subgenes.[6]

PRAME can inhibit retinoic acid signaling and retinoic acid mediated differentiation and apoptosis.[7]

Model organisms[edit]

Model organisms have been used in the study of PRAME function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Prametm1a(KOMP)Wtsi was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[8] Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen[9] to determine the effects of deletion.[10][11][12][13] Additional screens performed: - In-depth immunological phenotyping[14]


  1. ^ a b c ENSG00000275013 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000185686, ENSG00000275013 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Ikeda H, Lethé B, Lehmann F, van Baren N, Baurain JF, de Smet C, Chambost H, Vitale M, Moretta A, Boon T, Coulie PG (Feb 1997). "Characterization of an antigen that is recognized on a melanoma showing partial HLA loss by CTL expressing an NK inhibitory receptor". Immunity. 6 (2): 199–208. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80426-4. PMID 9047241. 
  4. ^ Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, Hunt AR, Collins JE, Bruskiewich R, Beare DM, Clamp M, Smink LJ, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Babbage A, Bagguley C, Bailey J, Barlow K, Bates KN, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bridgeman AM, Buck D, Burgess J, Burrill WD, O'Brien KP (Dec 1999). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489–95. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID 10591208. 
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: PRAME preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma". 
  6. ^ Mraz M, Stano Kozubik K, Plevova K, Musilova K, Tichy B, Borsky M, Kuglik P, Doubek M, Brychtova Y, Mayer J, Pospisilova S (2013). "The origin of deletion 22q11 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is related to the rearrangement of immunoglobulin lambda light chain locus". Leuk Res. 37: 802–8. doi:10.1016/j.leukres.2013.03.018. PMID 23608880. 
  7. ^ Epping MT, Wang L, Edel MJ, Carlée L, Hernandez M, Bernards R (September 2005). "The human tumor antigen PRAME is a dominant repressor of retinoic acid receptor signaling". Cell. 122 (6): 835–47. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.07.003. PMID 16179254. 
  8. ^ Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta Ophthalmologica. 88: 925–7. doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.4142.x. 
  9. ^ a b "International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium". 
  10. ^ Skarnes WC, Rosen B, West AP, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V, Mujica AO, Thomas M, Harrow J, Cox T, Jackson D, Severin J, Biggs P, Fu J, Nefedov M, de Jong PJ, Stewart AF, Bradley A (Jun 2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337–42. doi:10.1038/nature10163. PMC 3572410Freely accessible. PMID 21677750. 
  11. ^ Dolgin E (Jun 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262–3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. 
  12. ^ Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. 
  13. ^ White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, Salisbury J, Clare S, Ingham NJ, Podrini C, Houghton R, Estabel J, Bottomley JR, Melvin DG, Sunter D, Adams NC, Tannahill D, Logan DW, Macarthur DG, Flint J, Mahajan VB, Tsang SH, Smyth I, Watt FM, Skarnes WC, Dougan G, Adams DJ, Ramirez-Solis R, Bradley A, Steel KP (Jul 2013). "Genome-wide generation and systematic phenotyping of knockout mice reveals new roles for many genes". Cell. 154 (2): 452–64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207Freely accessible. PMID 23870131. 
  14. ^ a b "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Kirkin AF, Dzhandzhugazyan K, Zeuthen J (1998). "The immunogenic properties of melanoma-associated antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes". Experimental and Clinical Immunogenetics. 15 (1): 19–32. doi:10.1159/000019050. PMID 9619397. 
  • Matsushita M, Yamazaki R, Ikeda H, Kawakami Y (Mar 2003). "Preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods for hematological malignancies". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 44 (3): 439–44. doi:10.1080/1042819021000035725. PMID 12688312. 
  • Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (Sep 1996). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome Research. 6 (9): 791–806. doi:10.1101/gr.6.9.791. PMID 8889548. 
  • Williams JM, Chen GC, Zhu L, Rest RF (Jan 1998). "Using the yeast two-hybrid system to identify human epithelial cell proteins that bind gonococcal Opa proteins: intracellular gonococci bind pyruvate kinase via their Opa proteins and require host pyruvate for growth". Molecular Microbiology. 27 (1): 171–86. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.00670.x. PMID 9466265. 
  • Neumann E, Engelsberg A, Decker J, Störkel S, Jaeger E, Huber C, Seliger B (Sep 1998). "Heterogeneous expression of the tumor-associated antigens RAGE-1, PRAME, and glycoprotein 75 in human renal cell carcinoma: candidates for T-cell-based immunotherapies?". Cancer Research. 58 (18): 4090–5. PMID 9751617. 
  • van Baren N, Chambost H, Ferrant A, Michaux L, Ikeda H, Millard I, Olive D, Boon T, Coulie PG (Sep 1998). "PRAME, a gene encoding an antigen recognized on a human melanoma by cytolytic T cells, is expressed in acute leukaemia cells". British Journal of Haematology. 102 (5): 1376–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.1998.00982.x. PMID 9753074. 
  • Watari K, Tojo A, Nagamura-Inoue T, Nagamura F, Takeshita A, Fukushima T, Motoji T, Tani K, Asano S (Jan 2000). "Identification of a melanoma antigen, PRAME, as a BCR/ABL-inducible gene". FEBS Letters. 466 (2–3): 367–71. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01112-1. PMID 10682862. 
  • Pellat-Deceunynck C, Mellerin MP, Labarrière N, Jego G, Moreau-Aubry A, Harousseau JL, Jotereau F, Bataille R (Mar 2000). "The cancer germ-line genes MAGE-1, MAGE-3 and PRAME are commonly expressed by human myeloma cells". European Journal of Immunology. 30 (3): 803–9. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200003)30:3<803::AID-IMMU803>3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 10741395. 
  • Matsushita M, Ikeda H, Kizaki M, Okamoto S, Ogasawara M, Ikeda Y, Kawakami Y (Mar 2001). "Quantitative monitoring of the PRAME gene for the detection of minimal residual disease in leukaemia". British Journal of Haematology. 112 (4): 916–26. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2001.02670.x. PMID 11298586. 
  • Steinbach D, Hermann J, Viehmann S, Zintl F, Gruhn B (Mar 2002). "Clinical implications of PRAME gene expression in childhood acute myeloid leukemia". Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics. 133 (2): 118–23. doi:10.1016/S0165-4608(01)00570-2. PMID 11943337. 
  • Steinbach D, Viehmann S, Zintl F, Gruhn B (Oct 2002). "PRAME gene expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia". Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics. 138 (1): 89–91. doi:10.1016/S0165-4608(02)00582-4. PMID 12419593. 
  • Lehner B, Semple JI, Brown SE, Counsell D, Campbell RD, Sanderson CM (Jan 2004). "Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins encoded within the human MHC class III region". Genomics. 83 (1): 153–67. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(03)00235-0. PMID 14667819. 
  • Oberthuer A, Hero B, Spitz R, Berthold F, Fischer M (Jul 2004). "The tumor-associated antigen PRAME is universally expressed in high-stage neuroblastoma and associated with poor outcome". Clinical Cancer Research. 10 (13): 4307–13. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-03-0813. PMID 15240516. 
  • Collins JE, Wright CL, Edwards CA, Davis MP, Grinham JA, Cole CG, Goward ME, Aguado B, Mallya M, Mokrab Y, Huckle EJ, Beare DM, Dunham I (2005). "A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome". Genome Biology. 5 (10): R84. doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-10-r84. PMC 545604Freely accessible. PMID 15461802.