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Pakubuwono I of Mataram

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Pakubuwono I (also as Pakubuwana I, before his reign was known as Pangeran Puger), uncle of Amangkurat III of Mataram was a combatant for the succession of the Mataram dynasty, both as a co-belligerent during the Trunajaya rebellion (from 1677 to 1681), and the First Javanese War of Succession (1704–1707).

Pakubuwono I of Mataram
Susuhunan of Mataram
CoronationSeptember 1705
PredecessorAmangkurat III
SuccessorAmangkurat IV
BornRaden Mas Darajat
ca. 1648
Plered Palace, Plered, Mataram Sultanate
Died22 February 1719
Kartasura Palace, Kartasura, Mataram Sultanate
Pakubuwanan Tomb, Imogiri Royal Cemetery, Imogiri, Mataram Sultanate
SpouseQueen Mas Blitar
IssueAmangkurat IV
Regnal name
Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuhun Kanjeng Susuhunan Prabu Pakubuwana Senapati ing Ngalaga Abdurrahman Sayyidin Panatagama Ingkang Jumeneng Kaping I
FatherAmangkurat I
MotherRatu Wetan

He created a new name for his line, with the title Pakubuwono, the standard name for rulers of the subsequently created Surakarta. Most Javanese chronicles (Javanese: babad) depict him as a great wise ruler. He ruled from 1705 to 1719.

His son succeeded him with the title Amangkurat IV.


Born as Raden Mas Darajat, he was the son of Amangkurat I, the last Mataram ruler based in Plered, from his second queen consort, Ratu Wetan. Ratu Wetan originated from the Kajoran family, descended from the Sultans of Pajang.

RM. Darajat was once appointed as a crown prince (Javanese: adipati anom) when a conflict between his father and Raden Mas Rahmat (later Amangkurat II of Mataram) occurred. RM. Rahmat was Prince Puger's half-brother, born in Ratu Kulon (the first queen consort of Amangkurat I). Amangkurat I relinquished the crown prince title from RM. Rahmat and ceded it to RM. Darajat. But, when the Kajoran family was proven to support the Trunajaya rebellion in 1674, Amangkurat I was forced to draw the title from RM. Darajat.

Defending Plered[edit]

The peak of the Trunajaya rebellion took place in 1677. This Madurese prince made a great invasion of Plered, the capital of Mataram. Amangkurat I escaped to the west and assigned RM. Rahmat to defend the palace. But, RM. Rahmat refused and chose to evacuate as well. Prince Puger appeared to replace his half-brother to prove to his father that not all of Kajoran's family members were involved in the Trunajaya rebellion.

When Trunajaya troops came to Plered Palace, Amangkurat I had evacuated. Prince Puger stood against them. But, the enemy's strength was too great, so he was forced to escape to Jenar village (now in Purwodadi, Purworejo). Prince Puger built a new palace namely Purwakanda there and appointed himself as a king-styled Susuhunan Ingalaga.

Trunajaya plundered Mataram heirlooms. He subsequently moved to his post in Kediri. Meanwhile, Sunan Ingalaga came back to Plered to destroy the remaining Trunajaya's followers placed there. Sunan Ingalaga then appointed himself as a new Mataram ruler.

Defeated by Amangkurat II[edit]

In the meantime, Amangkurat I had died while escaping to Tegal. RM. Rahmat was appointed as the new ruler of Mataram, styled Amangkurat II. As his father's will, Amangkurat II requested the Dutch East India Company for help. The Trunajaya rebellion was eventually suppressed at the end of 1679.

Amangkurat II was a king without a palace because Plered had been occupied by Sunan Ingalaga, his half-brother. He built a new palace in Wanakerta forest, later renamed to Kartasura, in September 1680. Amangkurat II then summoned Sunan Ingalaga to join with him, but Sunan Ingalaga turned it down.

The refusal caused a civil war. Eventually, on 28 November 1681, Sunan Ingalaga surrendered to Jacob Couper, a Dutch officer who helped Amangkurat II. Sunan Ingalaga himself was titled Prince Puger again and recognized his half-brother's rule Amangkurat II.

The defeat of Prince Puger marked the end of the Mataram Sultanate which became vassal of Sunanate of Surakarta. Despite that, Javanese chronicles still praise Prince Puger's existence as an ordinary man in Kartasura. The king was indeed Amangkurat II, but the government of Sunanate was controlled by Prince Puger. It is understandable because the Javanese chronicles were written in the era of Prince Puger-descended rulers.

Death of Captain Tack[edit]

Amangkurat II successfully ascended to the throne because of Dutch assistance, but accompanied by a treaty that worsened the Kartasura-based Mataram Sultanate. When the situation was conducive, the anti-Dutch Patih Nerangkusuma persuaded him to betray the treaty.

In 1685, Amangkurat II protected a Dutch fugitive namely Untung Suropati. Captain François Tack arrived in Kartasura to arrest him. Amangkurat II pretended to help the Dutch East India Company. But, he secretly tasked Prince Puger to be disguised as Untung Suropati's follower.

In a bitter fight that took place around Kartasura Palace in February 1686, the 75-man Dutch troops were killed by Untung Surapati's troops, including Captain Tack who was unable to go down from his horse.

Expelled from Kartasura[edit]

Amangkurat II died in 1703 and was succeeded by his son Amangkurat III, a king disliked by many people due to his bad attitude, so there was much support for Prince Puger. The relationship between uncle and nephew is strained. Amangkurat III's hostility toward his half-uncle severed when Raden Suryokusumo, son of Prince Puger, rebelled.

The hostility culminated in May 1704, when Amangkurat III sent troops to exterminate Prince Puger's family. But, he and his followers successfully escaped. The one tasked to chase was Duke Jangrana II, Regent of Surabaya. But Duke Jangrana II secretly supported Prince Puger, so his pursuit was no more than a drama.

Rangga Yudanegara, Regent of Semarang, acted as a mediator of Prince Puger in requesting the Dutch East India Company for help. Yudanegara's diplomacy skills successfully made the Dutch East India Company forgive Captain Tack's death. They were prepared to help Prince Puger's struggle with some conditions beneficial to them.

The content of the Semarang Treaty which had to be signed by Prince Puger is, among others, the transfer of Eastern Madura to the Dutch East India Company.

Kartasura occupation[edit]

On 6 July 1704, Prince Puger was appointed as a ruler styled Susuhunan Paku Buwana Senapati Ingalaga Ngabdurahman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatulah Tanah Jawa, commonly abbreviated as Pakubuwana or Pakubuwono I.

One year later, Pakubuwono I, guarded by joint Dutch, Semarang, Western Madura, and Surabaya troops, moved to invade Kartasura. Kartasura troops assigned to ambush them were led by Arya Mataram, Pakubuwono I's own younger brother. Arya Mataram successfully persuaded Amangkurat III to evacuate to the east, when he joined with Pakubuwono I.

The throne of Kartasura thus fell to Pakubuwono I's hand, exactly on 17 September 1705.


The rule of Pakubuwono I was brought up to a new treaty with the Dutch East India Company as a replacement ever signed by Amangkurat II. The old treaty stipulated that Kartasura was obliged to pay Trunajaya war costs for 4.5 million guilders, and the new one stipulated that Kartasura was obliged to send 13,000 tons of rice per year for 25 years.

In 1706, joined Kartasura and Dutch troops running after Amangkurat III who sought protection in Pasuruan. In a battle in Bangil, Untung Suropati, the then Regent of Pasuruan, was killed in action. Amangkurat III himself surrendered in Surabaya in 1708, and was later exiled to Dutch Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

One year later, Pakubuwono II was forced to sentence Duke Jangrana II of Surabaya, who previously helped him to ascend the throne, to death, on the ground that the Dutch East India Company found proof that Duke Jangrana II committed treason in the First Javanese War of Succession in 1706.

Jangrana II was succeeded by his brother, Jayapuspita, as Regent of Surabaya. In 1714, Jayapuspita refused to appear before Pakubuwono I and prepared for rebellion. 3 years later, joined Kartasura and Dutch troops invaded Surabaya. According to Babad Tanah Jawi, this new battle is more horrible than in Pasuruan. Jayapuspita was eventually defeated and retreated to Japan (now Mojokerto) in 1718.

Later life[edit]

Sunan Pakubuwono I died in 1719, and was succeeded by his son, Amangkurat IV, whose reign was marked by the Second Javanese War of Succession.


Queen Consort[edit]

  1. Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Pakubuwana
    also known as Ratu Mas Blitar, daughter of Pangeran Harya Blitar IV of Madiun.


  1. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Sendhi
  2. Kanjeng Mas Ayu Tejawati
  3. Kanjeng Mas Ayu Ratnawati


  1. Gusti Pangeran Harya Pamot
  2. Raden Mas Kawa
    also known as Raden Mas Wiryatruna or Raden Mas Antawirya, styled as Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Harya Adipati Prangwedana.
  3. Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Timur
    daughter of GKR. Pakubuwana.
  4. Bendara Raden Ayu Rangga Prawiradirja
    married to Kanjeng Raden Tumenggung Rangga Prawiradirja I of Madiun.
  5. Raden Ajeng Demes
    styled as Kanjeng Ratu Ayunan or Kanjeng Ratu Maduratna. Married to Panembahan Cakradiningrat IV of Madura.
  6. Bendara Raden Ayu Mataun
    married to Kanjeng Raden Tumenggung Mataun of Jipang.
  7. Raden Mas Sudhira
    also known as Raden Mas Teja or Raden Mas Suryakusuma, son of KMAy. Tejawati, styled as Gusti Pangeran Harya Ngabehi Saloring Pasar.
  8. Raden Ayu Lembah
    daughter of KRAy. Sendhi. Married to Amangkurat III.
  9. Raden Mas Mesir
    also known as Raden Mas Martataruna, styled as Pangeran Harya Adipati Dipasanta.
  10. Tumenggung Honggowongso alias Joko Sangrib (Kentol Surawijaya), later Arungbinang I, Regent of Surakarta
  11. Raden Mas Sasangka
    son of GKR. Pakubuwana, styled as Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Purbaya or Gusti Panembahan Purbaya.
  12. Raden Mas Papak
    also known as Raden Mas Dipatruna, son of KMAy. Tejawati, styled as Gusti Pangeran Harya Adipati Dipanegara of Madiun.
  13. Raden Mas Sudharma
    son of GKR. Pakubuwana, styled as Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Harya Blitar. He was the maternal grandfather of Mangkunegara I.
  14. RM. Sengkuk
  15. Raden Mas Suryaputra
    son of GKR. Pakubuwana, then Amangkurat IV.
  16. Raden Ayu Himpun
    daughter of KMAy. Ratnawati, married to Amangkurat III after the death of his elder sister.


  • Miksic, John N. (general ed.), et al. (2006) Karaton Surakarta: A Look into the Court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, Central Java (First published: 'By the will of His Serene Highness Paku Buwono XII'. Surakarta: Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004). Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2
  • Babad Tanah Jawi, Mulai dari Nabi Adam Sampai Tahun 1647. (transl.). 2007. Yogyakarta: Narasi
  • De Graaf HJ, Pigeaud Th. 1974. De eerste moslimse vorstendommen op Java: Studiën over de staatkundige geschiedenis van de 15de en 16de eeuw. Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff
  • De Graaf HJ. 1935. De moord op Kapitein François Tack, 8 februari 1686. Amsterdam: Paris.
  • Ricklefs MC. 2001. A History of Modern Indonesia: 3rd Edition. Palgrave and Stanford University Press.
  • Moedjianto. 1987. Konsep Kekuasaan Jawa: Penerapannya oleh Raja-raja Mataram. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.
  • Purwadi. 2007. Sejarah Raja-Raja Jawa. Yogyakarta: Media Ilmu.

External links[edit]

Preceded by Susuhunan of Mataram
Succeeded by