Paramara dynasty

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Paramaras of Malwa

9th or 10th century CE–1305 CE
Map of Asia in 1200 CE. Paramara kingdom is shown in central India.
Capital Dhar
Languages Sanskrit, Prakrit
Religion Shaivism
Government Monarchy
King
 •  possibly 9th century CE Upendra
 •  c. 1010-1055 CE Bhoja
 •  died 1305 CE Mahlakadeva
Historical era Classical India
 •  Established 9th or 10th century CE
 •  Disestablished 1305 CE

The Paramara dynasty were a Rajput royal house that ruled Malwa and surrounding areas in west-central India between 9th and 14th centuries.

The Paramara dynasty was established in either 9th or 10th century. The earliest extant Paramara inscriptions, issued by the 10th century ruler Siyaka, have been found in Gujarat and suggest that he was a vassal of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. Around 972 CE, Siyaka sacked the Rashtrakuta capital Manyakheta, and established the Paramaras as a sovereign power. By the time of his successor Munja, the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh had become the core Paramara territory, with Dhara (now Dhar) as their capital. The dynasty reached its zenith under Munja's nephew Bhoja, whose kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to Konkan in the south, and from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east.

The Paramara power rose and declined several times as a result of their struggles with the Chalukyas of Gujarat, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Kalachuris of Tripuri and other neighbouring kingdoms. The later Paramara rulers moved their capital to Mandapa-Durga (now Mandu) after Dhara was sacked multiple times by their enemies. Mahalakadeva, the last known Paramara king, was defeated and killed by the forces of Alauddin Khilji of Delhi in 1305 CE, although epigraphic evidence suggests that the Paramara rule continued for a few years after his death.

Malwa enjoyed a great level of political and cultural prestige under the Paramaras. The Paramaras were well-known for their patronage to poets and scholars, and Bhoja was himself a renowned scholar. Most of the Paramara kings were Shaivites and commissioned several Shiva temples, although they also patronized Jain scholars.

Origin[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

The Harsola copper plates (949 CE) issued by the Paramara king Siyaka II establish that the early Paramara rulers were the feudatories of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. This inscription mentions a king called Akalavarsha (identified with the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna III), followed by the expression tasmin kule ("in that family"), and then followed by the name "Vappairaja" (identified with the Paramara king Vakpati I).[1] Based on the Harsola inscription, some historians such as D. C. Ganguly theorized that the Paramaras were descended from the Rashtrakutas. Ganguly also tried to find support for his theory in Ain-i-Akbari, whose variation of the Agnikula myth (see below) states that the founder of the Paramara kingdom came to Malwa from Deccan.[2] Moreover, Siyaka's successor Munja (Vakpati II) assumed titles such as Amoghavarsha, Sri-vallabha and Prithvi-vallabha: these are distinctively Rashtrakuta titles.[3]

Several historians have been critical of this theory. Dasharatha Sharma notes that Padmagupta (the court-poet of Siyaka's son Sindhuraja) described the Agnikula myth, and argues that the Rashtrakuta royal origin of the Paramaras could not have been forgotten within a generation.[3] K. C. Jain theorizes that Vappairaja's mother was related to the Rashtrakuta family, because the other Paramara records do not boast of the Rashtrakuta royals as their ancestors.[2] Siyaka and other Paramara kings before Munja did not adopt any Rashtrakuta titles: Munja may have adopted these titles to commemorate his predecessor's victory over the Rashtrakutas, and to strengthen his claim over the former Rashtrakuta territories.[4][2]

The later Paramara kings claimed to be members of the Agnikula or Agnivansha ("fire clan"). The Agnikula myth of origin, which appears in several of their inscriptions and literary works, goes like this: The sage Vishvamitra forcibly took a wish-granting cow from another sage Vashistha on the Arbuda mountain (Mount Abu). Vashistha then conjured a hero from a sacrificial fire pit (agni-kunda), who defeated Vashistha's enemies and brought back the cow. Vashistha then gave the hero the title Paramara ("enemy killer").[5] The earliest known source to mention this story is the Nava-sahasanka-charita of Padmagupta Parimala, who was a court-poet of the Paramara king Sindhuraja (ca. 997-1010).[6] The legend is not mentioned in earlier Paramara-era inscriptions or literary works. By this time, all the neighbouring dynasties claimed divine or heroic origin, which might have motivated the Paramaras to invent a legend of their own.[7] Later, a legend mentioned in a recension of Prithviraj Raso extended the legend to include other Rajput dynasties among the fire-born clans. The earliest extant copies of Prithviraj Raso do not contain this legend; this version might have been invented by the 16th century poets who wanted to foster Rajput unity against the Mughal emperor Akbar.[8]

Some colonial-era historians interpreted this mythical account to suggest a foreign origin for the Paramaras. According to this theory, the ancestors of the Paramaras and other Agnivanshi Rajputs came to India after the decline of the Gupta Empire around 5th century CE. They were admitted in the Hindu caste system after performing a fire ritual.[9] However, this theory is weakened by the fact that the legend is not mentioned in the earliest of the Paramara records, and even the earliest Paramara-era account does not mention other Rajput clans as Agnivanshi.[10]

Some historians, such as Dasharatha Sharma and Pratipal Bhatia, have argued that the Paramaras were originally Brahmins from the Vashistha gotra.[2] This theory is based on the fact that Munja's court poet Halayudha describes the king as "Brahma-Kshtra" in Pingala-Sutra-Vritti. According to Bhatia this expression means that Munja came from a family of Brahmins who became Kshatriyas.[11] In addition, the Patanarayana temple inscription states that the Paramaras were of Vashistha gotra, which is a gotra among Brahmins claiming descent from the sage Vashistha.[12]

D. C. Sircar theorized that the dynasty descended from the Malavas. However, there is no evidence of the early Paramara rulers being called Malava; the Paramaras began to be called Malavas only after they began ruling the Malwa region.[2]

Original homeland[edit]

Places in Gujarat where the earliest Paramara inscriptions (of Siyaka II) have been discovered

Based on the Agnikula legend, some scholars such as C. V. Vaidya and V. A. Smith speculated that Mount Abu was the original home of the Paramaras. Based on the Harsola copper plates and Ain-i-Akbari, D. C. Ganguly believed they came from the Deccan region.[13]

The earliest of the Paramara inscriptions (that of Siyaka II) have all been discovered in Gujarat, and concern land grants in that region. Based on this, D. B. Diskalkar and H. V. Trivedi theorized that the Paramaras were associated with Gujarat during their early days.[14]

Early rulers[edit]

Historical evidence suggests that between 808-812 CE, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta expelled the Gurjara-Pratiharas from the Malwa region. The Rashtrakuta king Govinda III placed Malwa under the protection of Karka-raja, the Rashtrakuta chief of Lata (a region bordering Malwa, in present-day Gujarat). Malwa was subsequently ruled by a vassal of the Rashtrakutas. This vassal could have been a member of the Paramara dynasty, but there is no definitive proof of this. The start of the Paramara rule in Malwa cannot be dated with certainty, but it is incontestable that they did not rule the Malwa before 9th century CE.[15]

Siyaka is the earliest known Paramara king attested by his own inscriptions. His Harsola copper plate inscription (949 CE) is the earliest available Paramara inscription: it suggests that he was a vassal of the Rashtrakutas.[1] The list of his predecessors varies between accounts:[16][1]

List of early Paramara rulers according to different sources
Harsola copper plates (949 CE) Nava-Sahasanka-Charita (early 11th century) Udaipur Prashasti inscription (11th century) Nagpur Prashasti inscription (1104 CE) Other land grants Note
Paramara Paramara Paramara Paramara Mythical ancestor
Upendra Upendra Krishna Upendra is another name for Krishna / Vishnu; therefore, some historians consider Krishna and Upendra as identical.
"Other kings" Vairisimha (I) Some historians consider Vairisimha I as a fictional king or a mistakenly repeated name
Siyaka (I) Some historians consider Siyaka I as a fictional king or a mistakenly repeated name
Vappairaja Vakpati (I) Vakpati (I) Vappairaja appears to be the Prakrit form of Vakpati-raja. Some historians consider Krishna as another name for Vakpati I, because an inscription of Vakpati II names Krishna as Varisimha's predecessor.
Varisimha Vairisimha Vairisimha (II) Varisimha Varisimha
Siyaka Siyaka alias Harsha Vadaja Harsha Siyaka Siyaka Historically attested by his own inscriptions

An inscription of Siyaka's successor Munja names the preceding kings as Krishnaraja, Vairisimha, and Siyaka. Whether the other kings mentioned in the Udaipur Prashasti are historical or fictional is a topic of debate among historians.[17]

According to C. V. Vaidya and K. A. Nilakantha Sastri, the Paramara dynasty was founded only in the 10th century CE. Vaidya believes that the kings such as Vairisimha I and Siyaka I are imaginary, duplicated from the names of later historical kings in order to push back the dynasty's age.[17] The 1274 CE Mandhata copper-plate inscription of Jayavarman II similarly names eight successors of Paramara as Kamandaludhara, Dhumraja, Devasimhapala, Kanakasimha, Shriharsha, Jagaddeva, Sthirakaya and Voshari: these do not appear to be historical figures.[18] HV Trivedi states that there is a possibility that Varisimha I and Siyaka I of the Udaipur Prashasti are same as Vairisimha II and Siyaka II; the names might have been repeated by mistake. Alternatively, he theorizes that these names have been omitted in other inscriptions because these rulers were not independent sovereigns.[1]

Several other historians believe that the early Paramara rulers mentioned in the Udaipur Prashasti are not fictional, and the Paramaras started ruling Malwa in 9th century (as Rashtrakuta vassals). K. N. Seth argues that even some of the later Paramara inscriptions mention only 3-4 predecessors of king who issued the inscription. Therefore, the absence of certain names from the genealogy provided in the early inscriptions does not mean that these were imaginary rulers. According to him, the mention of Upendra in Nava-Sahasanka-Charitra (composed by the court poet of the later king Sindhuraja) proves that Upendra is not a fictional king.[19] Historians such as Georg Bühler and James Burgess identify Upendra and Krishnaraja as one person, because these are synonyms (Upendra being another name of Krishna). Seth however identifies Krishnaraja with Vappairaja i.e. Vakpati I (the father of Vairisimha) mentioned in the Harsola plates. In his support, Seth points out that Vairisimha has been called Krishna-padanudhyata in the inscription of Munja i.e. Vakpati II. He argues that Vakpati II used the name "Krishnaraja" instead of Vakpati I to identify his ancestor, in order to avoid confusion with his own name.[19]

The imperial Paramaras[edit]

Map showing the find-spots of the inscriptions of the Paramāras
Detail of the masonry of the northern dam at Bhojpur

The first independent sovereign of the Paramara dynasty was Siyaka (sometimes called Siyaka II to distinguish him from the earlier Siyaka mentioned in the Udaipur Prashasti). The Harsola copper plates (949 CE) suggest that Siyaka was a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna III in his early days. However, the same inscription also mentions the high-sounding Maharajadhirajapati as one of Siyaka's titles. Based on this, K. N. Seth believes that Siyaka's acceptance of the Rashtrakuta lordship was nominal.[20]

As a Rashtrakuta feudatory, Siyaka participated in their campaigns against the Pratiharas. He also defeated some Huna chiefs ruling to the north of Malwa.[21] He might have suffered setbacks against the Chandela king Yashovarman.[22] After the death of Krishna III, Siyaka defeated his successor Khottiga in a battle fought on the banks of the Narmada River. He then pursued Khottiga's retreating army to the Rashtrakuta capital Manyakheta, and sacked that city in 972 CE. His victory ultimately led to the decline of the Rashtrakutas, and the establishment of the Paramaras as an independent sovereign power in Malwa.[23]

Siyaka's successor Munja achieved military successes against the Chahamanas of Shakambari, the Chahamanas of Naddula, the Guhilas of Mewar, the Hunas, the Kalachuris of Tripuri, and the ruler of Gurjara region (possibly a Gujarat Chalukya or Pratihara ruler).[24] He also achieved some early successes against the Western Chalukya king Tailapa II, but was ultimately defeated and killed by Tailapa some time between 994 CE and 998 CE.[25][26] As a result of this defeat, the Paramaras lost their southern territories (possibly the ones beyond the Narmada river) to the Chalukyas.[27] Munja was reputed as a patron of scholars, and his rule attracted scholars from different parts of India to Malwa.[28] He was also a poet himself, although only a few stanzas composed by him now survive.[29]

Munja's brother Sindhuraja (ruled c. 990s CE) defeated the Western Chalukya king Satyashraya, and recovered the territories lost to Tailapa II.[30] He also achieved military successes against a Huna chief, the Somavanshis of south Kosala, the Shilaharas of Konkana, and the ruler of Lata (southern Gujarat).[30] His court poet Padmagupta wrote his biography Nava-Sahasanka-Charita, which credits him with several other victories, although these appear to be poetic exaggerations.[31] The 14th century text Kumarapala-Charita, written under Solanki patronage, states that Chamunda-raja killed one Sindhuraja in the battle. Some historians identify this Sindhuraja with the Paramara king.[32][33]

Sindhuraja's son Bhoja is the most celebrated ruler of the Paramara dynasty. He made several attempts to expand the Paramara kingdom varying results. Around 1018 CE, he defeated the Chalukyas of Lata in present-day Gujarat.[34] Between 1018 CE and 1020 CE, he gained control of the northern Konkan, whose Shilahara rulers probably served as his feudatories for a brief period.[35][36] Bhoja also formed an alliance against the Kalyani Chalukya king Jayasimha II, with Rajendra Chola and Gangeya-deva Kalachuri. The extent of Bhoja's success in this campaign is not certain, as both Chalukya and Paramara panegyrics claimed victory.[37] During the last years of Bhoja's reign, sometime after 1042 CE, Jayasimha's son and successor Someshvara I invaded Malwa, and sacked his capital Dhara.[30] Bhoja re-established his control over Malwa soon after the departure of the Chalukya army, but the defeat pushed back the southern boundary of his kingdom from Godavari to Narmada.[38][39]

Bhoja's attempt to expand his kingdom eastwards was foiled by the Chandela king Vidyadhara.[40] However, Bhoja was able to extend his influence among the Chandela feudatories, the Kachchhapaghatas of Dubkund.[41] Bhoja also launched a campaign against the Kachchhapaghatas of Gwalior, possibly with the ultimate goal of capture Kannauj, but his attacks were repulsed by their ruler Kirtiraja.[42] Bhoja also defeated the Chahamanas of Shakambhari, killing their ruler Viryarama. However, he was forced to retreat by the Chahamanas of Naddula.[43] According to medieval Muslim historians, after sacking Somnath, Mahmud of Ghazni changed his route to avoid confrontation with a Hindu king named Param Dev. Modern historians identify Param Dev as Bhoja: the name may be a corruption of Paramara-Deva or of Bhoja's title Parameshvara-Paramabhattaraka.[44][45] Bhoja may have also contributed troops to support the Kabul Shahi ruler Anandapala's fight against the Ghaznavids.[46] He may have also been a part of the Hindu alliance that expelled Mahmud's governors from Hansi, Thanesar and other areas around 1043 CE.[47][30] During the last year of Bhoja's reign, or shortly after his death, the Solanki king Bhima-deva and the Kalachuri king Karna attacked his kingdom. According to the 14th century author Merutunga, Bhoja died of a disease at the same time the allied army attacked his kingdom.[48][49]

At its zenith, Bhoja's kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to upper Konkan in the south, and from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east.[50] He was recognized as a capable military leader, but his territorial conquests were short-lived. His major claim to fame was his reputation as a scholar-king, who patronized arts, literature and sciences. Noted poets and writers of his time sought his sponsorship.[51] Bhoja was himself a polymath, whose writings cover a wide variety of topics include grammar, poetry, architecture, yoga, and chemistry. Bhoja established the Bhoj Shala which was a centre for Sanskrit studies and a temple of Sarasvati in present day Dhar. He is said to have founded the city of Bhojpur, a belief supported by historical evidence. Besides the Bhojeshwar Temple there, the construction of three now-breached dams in that area is attributed to him.[52] Because of his patronage to literary figures, several legends written after his death featured him as a righteous scholar-king.[53] In terms of the number of legends centered around him, Bhoja is comparable to the fabled Vikramaditya.[54]

Decline[edit]

Pillar in the Bijamaṇḍal, Vidisha with an inscription of Naravarman

Bhoja's successor Jayasimha I, who was probably his son,[55] faced the joint Kalachuri-Solanki invasion immediately after Bhoja's death.[56] Bilhana's writings suggest that he sought help from the Chalukyas of Kalyani.[57]

Jayasimha's successor and Bhoja's brother Udayaditya was defeated by Chamundaraja, his vassal at Vagada. He faced an invasion from Karna, the Solanki ruler of Lata. In response, he and his allies defeated Karna. Udayaditya's eldest son Lakshmadeva has been credited with extensive military conquests in the Nagpur Prashasti inscription of 1104-05 CE. However, these appear to be poetic exaggerations. At best, he might have defeated the Kalachuris of Tripuri.[58] Udayaditya's younger son Naravarman faced several defeats, losing to the Chandelas of Jejakabhukti and the Solanki king Jayasimha Siddharaja. By the end of his reign, one Vijayapala had carved out an independent kingdom to the north-east of Ujjain.[59]

Yashovarman lost control of the Paramara capital Dhara to Jayasimha Siddharaja. His successor Jayavarman I regained control of Dhara, but soon lost it to an usurper named Ballala.[60] The Solanki king Kumarapala defeated Ballala around 1150 CE, supported by his feudatories the Naddula Chahamana ruler Alhana and the Abu Paramara chief Yashodhavala. Malwa then became a province of the Solankis. A minor branch of the Paramaras, who styled themselves as Mahakumaras, ruled the area around Bhopal during this time.[61] Nearly two decades later, Jayavarman's son Vindhyavarman defeated the Solanki king Mularaja II, and re-established the Paramara sovereignty in Malwa.[62] During his reign, Malwa faced repeated invasions from the Hoysalas and the Yadavas of Devagiri.[63] He was also defeated by the Solanki general Kumara.[64] Despite these setbacks, he was able to restore the Paramara power in Malwa before his death.[65]

Vindhyavarman's son Subhatavarman invaded Gujarat, and plundered the Solanki territories. But he was ultimately forced to retreat by the Solanki feudatory Lavana-Prasada.[66] His son Arjunavarman I also invaded Gujarat, and defeated Jayanta-simha (or Jaya-simha), who had usurped the Solanki throne for a brief period.[67] He was defeated by Yadava general Kholeshvara in Lata.[68]

Arjunavarman was succeeded by Devapala, who was the son of Harishchandra, a Mahakumara (chief of a Paramara branch).[68] He continued to face struggles against the Solankis and the Yadavas. The Sultan of Delhi Iltutmish captured Bhilsa during 1233-34 CE, but Devapala defeated the Sultanate's governor and regained control of Bhilsa.[69][70] According to the Hammira-Mahakavya, he was killed by Vagabhata of Ranthambhor, who suspected him of plotting his murder in connivance with the Delhi Sultan.[71]

During the reign of Devapala's son Jaitugideva, the power of the Paramaras greatly declined because of invasions from the Yadava king Krishna, the Delhi Sultan Balban, and the Vaghela prince Visala-deva.[72] Devapala's younger son Jayavarman II also faced attacks from these three powers. Either Jaitugi or Jayavarman II moved the Paramara capital from Dhara to the hilly Mandapa-Durga (present-day Mandu), which offered a better defensive position.[73]

Arjunavarman II, the successor of Jayavarman II, proved to be a weak ruler. He faced rebellion from his minister.[74] In the 1270s, the Yadava ruler Ramachandra invaded Malwa,[75] and in the 1280s, the Ranthambhor Chahamana ruler Hammira also raided Malwa.[76] Arjuna's successor Bhoja II also faced an invasion from Hammira.[77] Bhoja II was either a titular ruler controlled by his minister, or his minister had usurped a part of the Paramara kingdom.[78]

Mahalakadeva, the last known Paramara king, was defeated and killed by the army of Alauddin Khilji in 1305 CE.[79]

Rulers[edit]

The Paramara rulers mentioned in the various inscriptions and literary sources include:[80][81]

Name of the ruler Estimate of reign (CE) Range of inscriptions (CE) Notes
Paramara Mythological ancestor
Upendra 9th century
Vairisimha (I) 9th century Considered fictional by some historians
Siyaka (I) 9th century Considered fictional by some historians
Vakpati (I) 9th-10th century Called Vappairaja or Bappiraja in Harsola copper plates
Vairisimha (II) 10th century
Siyaka (II) 948-972 948-969 Also called Harsha. A Rashtrakuta vassal in his early days. Established the Paramara sovereignty by the end of his life.
Vakpati (II) alias Munja 972-990s 974-986 Also called Utpalaraja. Adopted the titles Amoghavarsha, Prithvivallabha, Sri-vallabha.
Sindhuraja 990s-1010 Also called Navasahasanka or Kumaranarayana in Nava-Sahasanka-Charita. Brother of Munja.
Bhoja 1010-1055 1010-1046 Also called "Bhoj" in Hindi and some other languages (because of schwa deletion)
Jayasimha (I) 1055-1070 1055 Probably Bhoja's son
Udayaditya 1070-1086 1080-1086 Brother of Bhoja
Lakshma-deva 1086-1094 Eldest son of Udayaditya
Naravarman 1094-1130 1094-1110 Younger brother of Lakshma
Yashovarman 1133-1142 1135 Son of Naravarman
Jayavarman (I) 1142-1143 Lost control of the kingdom
Interregnum 1144-1174 An usurper named Ballala captured power in Malwa. He was defeated by Kumarapala, the Chalukya king of Gujarat. The Paramara kingdom remained under Chalukya (Solanki) suzerainty during this period.
Vindhyavarman 1175-1194 Son of Jayavarman I
Subhatavarman 1194-1209 Son of Vindhyavarman
Arjunavarman I 1210-1215 1210-1215 Son of Subhatavarman
Devapala 1218-1239 1225-1232 Son of Mahakumara Harishchandra
Jaitugideva 1239-1255 Son of Devapala. Adopted the title Bala-Narayana.
Jayavarman II 1255-1274 1255-1274 Younger brother of Jaitugi
Arjunavarman II 13th century Faced a rebellion from his minister
Bhoja II 13th century Probably a puppet ruler controlled by a minister
Mahlakadeva died 1305 The last known king of the dynasty

An inscription from Udaipur indicates that the Paramara dynasty survived until 1310, at least in the north-eastern part of Malwa. A later inscription shows that the area had been captured by the Delhi Sultanate by 1338.[82]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Trivedi 1991, p. 4.
  2. ^ a b c d e Jain 1972, p. 327.
  3. ^ a b Yadava 1982, p. 36.
  4. ^ Seth 1978, p. 87.
  5. ^ Yadava 1982, p. 32.
  6. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel (2009). Rethinking India's Oral and Classical Epics. University of Chicago Press. p. 444. ISBN 9780226340555. 
  7. ^ Seth 1978, pp. 10-13.
  8. ^ Singh 1964, pp. 17-18.
  9. ^ Yadava 1982, p. 35.
  10. ^ Seth 1978, p. 16.
  11. ^ Yadava 1982, p. 37.
  12. ^ Seth 1978, p. 29.
  13. ^ Seth 1978, p. 30.
  14. ^ Trivedi 1991, p. 9.
  15. ^ Seth 1978, pp. 44-47.
  16. ^ Singh 1984, pp. 3-4.
  17. ^ a b Seth 1978, pp. 48-49.
  18. ^ Trivedi 1991, p. 212.
  19. ^ a b Seth 1978, pp. 48-51.
  20. ^ Seth 1978, pp. 76-77.
  21. ^ Seth 1978, p. 79.
  22. ^ Jain 1972, p. 334.
  23. ^ Seth 1978, pp. 81-84.
  24. ^ Jain 1972, p. 336-338.
  25. ^ Seth 1978, pp. 102-104.
  26. ^ M. Srinivasachariar (1974). History of Classical Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 502. ISBN 9788120802841. 
  27. ^ Jain 1972, pp. 339-340.
  28. ^ Jain 1972, pp. 340-341.
  29. ^ Seth 1978, p. 105.
  30. ^ a b c d Sen 1999, p. 320.
  31. ^ Jain 1972, p. 341.
  32. ^ Singh 1984, p. 30.
  33. ^ Majumdar 1956, p. 34.
  34. ^ Seth 1978, p. 137.
  35. ^ Seth 1978, pp. 140-141.
  36. ^ Singh 1984, p. 46.
  37. ^ Bose 2015, p. 27.
  38. ^ Seth 1978, p. 154.
  39. ^ Singh 1984, p. 56.
  40. ^ Singh 1984, p. 69.
  41. ^ Singh 1984, pp. 172-173.
  42. ^ Singh 1984, pp. 173.
  43. ^ Seth 1978, p. 177.
  44. ^ Seth 1978, pp. 163-165.
  45. ^ Singh 1984, pp. 61-62.
  46. ^ Seth 1978, p. 158.
  47. ^ Seth 1978, p. 166.
  48. ^ Seth 1978, p. 182.
  49. ^ Singh 1984, pp. 66-67.
  50. ^ Mankodi 1987, p. 62.
  51. ^ Pollock 2003, p. 179.
  52. ^ Mankodi 1987, p. 71.
  53. ^ Pollock 2003, pp. 179-180.
  54. ^ Warder 1992, pp. 176.
  55. ^ Warder 1992, pp. 177.
  56. ^ Seth 1978, pp. 182-184.
  57. ^ Prabhakar Narayan Kawthekar (1995). Bilhana. Sahitya Akademi. p. 72. ISBN 9788172017798. 
  58. ^ Trivedi 1991, p. 110.
  59. ^ Bhatia 1970, p. 115-122.
  60. ^ Jain 1972, pp. 362-363.
  61. ^ Jain 1972, pp. 363-364.
  62. ^ Majumdar 1977, p. 328.
  63. ^ Trivedi 1991, p. 162.
  64. ^ Bhatia 1970, p. 137.
  65. ^ Sen 1999, p. 322.
  66. ^ Jain 1972, p. 370.
  67. ^ Majumdar 1956, p. 148.
  68. ^ a b Jain 1972, p. 371.
  69. ^ Trivedi 1991, pp. 188.
  70. ^ Sircar 1966, pp. 187-188.
  71. ^ Jain 1972, p. 372.
  72. ^ Jain 1972, p. 373.
  73. ^ Trivedi 1991, p. 203.
  74. ^ Majumdar 1977, p. 445.
  75. ^ Bhatia 1970, p. 158.
  76. ^ Sharma 1975, p. 124.
  77. ^ Majumdar 1966, pp. 85-86.
  78. ^ Bhatia 1970, p. 160.
  79. ^ Sen 1999, p. 25.
  80. ^ Bühler 1892, p. 222.
  81. ^ Jain 1972, p. 327-375.
  82. ^ Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3. 

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