Pat Hayes

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Pat Hayes
Patrick John Hayes

(1944-08-21) 21 August 1944 (age 78)
Newent, Gloucestershire, UK
EducationBentley Grammar School
Alma materUniversity of Cambridge (BA)
University of Edinburgh (PhD)
Known forNaive Physics Manifesto[1][2]
AwardsAAAI Fellow[when?]
Scientific career
FieldsComputer Science
InstitutionsFlorida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition
University of Cambridge
University of Edinburgh
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Rochester
University of Essex
ThesisSemantic trees: new foundations for automatic theorem proving (1975)
Doctoral advisorBernard Meltzer[3]
InfluencesJohn McCarthy

Patrick John Hayes FAAAI (born 21 August 1944) is a British computer scientist who lives and works in the United States. As of March 2006, he is a Senior Research Scientist at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition in Pensacola, Florida.[4]


Hayes was educated at Bentley Grammar School.[citation needed] He studied the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Mathematics from the University of Cambridge[when?] and a PhD in Artificial Intelligence on the topic of 'Semantic trees: New foundations for automatic theorem-proving' [5] from the University of Edinburgh.[6]

Career and research[edit]

Hayes has been an active, prolific, and influential figure in artificial intelligence for over five decades.[4][7][8][9][10][11] He has a reputation for being provocative but also quite humorous.[citation needed]

One of his earliest publications, with John McCarthy, was the first thorough statement of the basis for the AI field of logical knowledge representation, introducing the notion of situation calculus, representation and reasoning about time, fluents, and the use of logic for representing knowledge in a computer.[12][13]

Hayes next major contribution was the seminal work on the Naive Physics Manifesto,[1] which anticipated the expert systems movement in many ways and called for researchers in AI to actually try to represent knowledge in computers. Although not the first to mention the word "ontology" in computer science (that distinction belongs to John McCarthy[citation needed]), Hayes was one of the first to actually do it, and inspired an entire generation of researchers in knowledge engineering, logical formalisations of commonsense reasoning, and ontology[citation needed].

In the middle of the 1990s, while serving as president of the AAAI, Hayes began a series of attacks on critics of AI, mostly phrased in an ironic light, and (together with his colleague Kenneth Ford) invented an award named after Simon Newcomb to be given for the most ridiculous argument "disproving" the possibility of AI. The Newcomb Awards are announced in the AI Magazine published by AAAI.

At the turn of the century he became active in the Semantic Web community, contributing substantially (perhaps solely) to the revised semantics of RDF known as RDF-Core, one of the three designers (along with Peter Patel-Schneider and Ian Horrocks[14]) of the Web Ontology Language semantics, and most recently contributed to SPARQL. He is also, along with philosopher Christopher Menzel the primary designer of the ISO Common Logic standard.

Hayes has served as secretary of AISB,[when?] chairman and trustee of IJCAI, associate editor of Artificial Intelligence, a governor of the Cognitive Science Society and president of American Association for Artificial Intelligence. Hayes is a charter Fellow of AAAI and of the Cognitive Science Society

According to his website, his current research interests include "knowledge representation and automatic reasoning, especially the representation of space and time; the semantic web; ontology design; and the philosophical foundations of AI and computer science".[15]


  1. ^ a b The naive physics manifesto in Michie, Donald (1979). Expert systems in the micro-electronic age. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-85224-381-7.
  2. ^ Hayes, Patrick (1995). "The second naive physics manifesto". Computation & Intelligence. pp. 567–585. ISBN 978-0262621014.
  3. ^ Pat Hayes at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Edit this at Wikidata
  4. ^ a b Pat Hayes at DBLP Bibliography Server Edit this at Wikidata
  5. ^ Hayes, Patrick J. (1973). "Semantic trees: New foundations for automatic theorem-proving". Meltzer, Bernard. hdl:1842/8115. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ Hayes, Patrick John (1975). Semantic trees: new foundations for automatic theorem proving (PhD thesis). University of Edinburgh. hdl:1842/8115. EThOS icon of an open green padlock
  7. ^ Hayes, P.; Eskridge, T. C.; Saavedra, R.; Reichherzer, T.; Mehrotra, M.; Bobrovnikoff, D. (2005). "Collaborative knowledge capture in ontologies". Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Knowledge capture - K-CAP '05. p. 99. doi:10.1145/1088622.1088641. ISBN 978-1595931634. S2CID 15663316.
  8. ^ Carroll, J. J.; Bizer, C.; Hayes, P.; Stickler, P. (2005). "Named graphs, provenance and trust". Proceedings of the 14th international conference on World Wide Web - WWW '05. p. 613. CiteSeerX doi:10.1145/1060745.1060835. ISBN 978-1595930460. S2CID 207156699.
  9. ^ Clark, P.; Hayes, P.; Reichherzer, T.; Thompson, J.; Barker, K.; Porter, B.; Chaudhri, V.; Rodriguez, A.; Thomere, J.; Mishra, S.; Gil, Y. (2001). "Knowledge entry as the graphical assembly of components". Proceedings of the international conference on Knowledge capture - K-CAP 2001. p. 22. CiteSeerX doi:10.1145/500737.500745. ISBN 978-1581133806. S2CID 663883.
  10. ^ Carroll, J. J.; Bizer, C.; Hayes, P.; Stickler, P. (2005). "Named graphs". Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web. 3 (4): 247. doi:10.1016/j.websem.2005.09.001.
  11. ^ Jensen, C. S.; Dyreson, C. E.; Böhlen, M.; Clifford, J.; Elmasri, R.; Gadia, S. K.; Grandi, F.; Hayes, P.; Jajodia, S.; Käfer, W.; Kline, N.; Lorentzos, N.; Mitsopoulos, Y.; Montanari, A.; Nonen, D.; Peressi, E.; Pernici, B.; Roddick, J. F.; Sarda, N. L.; Scalas, M. R.; Segev, A.; Snodgrass, R. T.; Soo, M. D.; Tansel, A.; Tiberio, P.; Wiederhold, G. (1998). "The consensus glossary of temporal database concepts — February 1998 version". Temporal Databases: Research and Practice. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 1399. p. 367. doi:10.1007/BFb0053710. ISBN 978-3-540-64519-1.
  12. ^ Shanahan, Murray (1997). Solving the frame problem: a mathematical investigation of the common sense law of inertia. MIT Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-262-19384-9. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  13. ^ Hayes, Patrick J.; John McCarthy (1969). "Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence". Machine Intelligence. 4: 463–502.
  14. ^ Fikes, R.; Hayes, P.; Horrocks, I. (2004). "OWL-QL—a language for deductive query answering on the Semantic Web". Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web. 2: 19–29. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.websem.2004.07.002.
  15. ^ "Pat Hayes". IHMC | Institute for Human & Machine Cognition. Retrieved 30 January 2019.