People's Federative Party (Bulgarian Section)

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The People's Federative Party (Bulgarian Section) (Bulgarian: Народна федеративна партия (българска секция)) was a Bulgarian political party in the Ottoman Empire, created after the Young Turk Revolution, by members of the left wing of the Internal Macedonian Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO).[1][2][3] The party functioned for one year from August 1909 until August 1910.[4] The Party decided to name itself Bulgarian Section, since it was hoped that other nationalities from European Turkey would adopt its program and form their own ethnic sections, but this didn't happen.[5] Its main political rival was the Union of the Bulgarian Constitutional Clubs.

Origins[edit]

The Kyustendil congress of IMARO in 1908 led to a disintegration of the organization - Yane Sandanski and Hristo Chernopeev contacted the Young Turks and started legal operation. After the disintegration of IMARO, the two first tried to set up the Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (MARO). Initially, the group developed only propaganda activities, until Sandanski was injured by Tane Nikolov on September 24, 1908, in an attempt for the former's life. Later, the congress for MARO's official inauguration failed. Sandanski and Chernopeev abandoned the idea of MARO, and they started to work towards a creation of the Peoples' Federative Party. On July 18, 1909, Sandaski proclaimed the "Manifesto to all peoples in the empire", a work probably written by Dimo Hadzhidimov. In 1909 the group around Sandanski and Chernopeev participated in the rally of the Young Turks to Istanbul that led to the deposition of sultan Abdul Hamid II from the throne.

Yane Sandanski and Nuredin Beg

Inauguration[edit]

First page of the statute of the PFP (Bulgarian Section)

The inauguration meeting of the party was held from August 3 to August 10, 1909 in cafe "Spledit Palace" in Solun. The representatives of 15 local organization attended the congress - H. Yankov and Dimitar Vlahov - Solun, H. Mendikarov and T. Klifov - Gorni Poroy, Stoyko Hadzhiev and Iliya Bizhev - Valovishta, Yane Sandanski and Georgi Kazepov - Melnik, S. Pashkulov and A. Bozhikov - Nevrokop, D.Koshtanov and G. Zahariev - Gorna Dzhumaya, G. Ognyanov - Maleshevsko, K. Samardzhiev and Hristo Chernopeev - Strumitsa, Pande Popmanushev - Petrich, M Goshev and D. Miraschiev - Veles, D. Daskalov and L. Lazarov - Tikvesh, I. Ilyukliev and N. Petrov - Kukush, I. Manolev - Bitolya, Y. Shurkov and F. Bayruaktarov - Skopje, Georgi Strizhovski and Elzov - Razlog, Spasov and Stambonliev - Ser, Todor Panitsa - Drama, A. Kirov - the region around Adrianople, B. Hristov - Dolni Poroy and G. Mihov - Ohrid. As it is described in some of the party's official documents, it stood behind "the interests of the majority of the Bulgarian population - land owners that do not get state support, small land owners, craftsmen and small merchants." A major goal of the organization was the reform of the Ottoman Empire into a federation, which included a creation of autonomous vilaets in Macedonia, Albania, Armenia. Six committees were organized throughout the party's existence. The party's agenda was maintained by a committee that included Sandanski, Dimitar Vlahov, Dimitar Kostanov and I. Manolov. The party's central committee consisted of A. Matliev, Dimitar Vlahov and H. Yankov, and with advisors Aleksandar Buynov, D. Daskalov, Dimitar Kostanov, Yane Sandanski, Hristo Chernopeev and Y. Shurkov.

Statute of the PFP (Bulgarian Section): Sec. 1: A member of the Bulg. Section of the Peoples' Federative Party can be any Bulgarian that is Ottoman citizen of age over 20, who accepts the party's agenda and participates in one of its local organizations. NOTE: a citizen of another nationality is accepted as a member, until a party section for that nationаlity is established.[6]
The manifesto proclaimed by Yane Sandanski at the beginning of the Young Turk Revolution

Activity[edit]

As deputees of the PFP (Bulgarian Section) were voted Dimitar Vlahov and Hristo Dalchev. Dimitar Vlahov was also the chief editor of the newspaper "Narodna Volya" (Peoples' Will). Dimo Hadzhidimov organized the newspaper "Konstitutsionna Zarya" (Constitutional Reveille), which was issued in Turkish, French and Bulgarian. There was a rift within the party on the role of the Bulgarian Exarchate. The Young Turks expressed desires for its abolition. Yane Sandanski was personally involved in the defense of the church. The newspaper "Rabotnicheska Iskra" (Worker's Spark), organized by Vasil Glavinov described the two rivaling ethnic Bulgarian parties in the Ottoman Empire at the time, the PFP (Bulgarian Section) and the Union of the Bulgarian Constitutional Clubs. According to the newspaper, both of the parties, the former a defender of the poorer Bourgeois, the latter - of the richer, were nationalist and were led by desires of unification with Bulgaria.[7] The regions in which PFP (Bulgarian Section) was most popular were in and around Strumitsa, Ser and Drama.

Dissolution[edit]

In January 1910 Hristo Chernopeev and some of his followers left the party and founded the Bulgarian People's Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization. Around the same the central committee, led by Dimitar Vlahov, voted Yane Sandanski out of the organization. A new central committee was formed with Dr. H. Tenchev as its president and members D. Miraschiev, Chudomir Kantardzhiev, Aleksandar Buynov and Atanas Spasov. In August 1910 the party was banned by the Ottoman authorities.[8]

Representatives at the First Congress of the PFP (Bulgarian Section)

Sources[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ We, the People: Politics of National Peculiarity in Southeastern Europe, Diana Mishkova, Издател Central European University Press, 2009, ISBN 9639776289, p. 130.
  2. ^ The Balkan Wars in the Eyes of the Warring Parties: Perceptions and Interpretations, Igor Despot, iUniverse, 2012, ISBN 1475947054, pp= 26-27.
  3. ^ Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies, Roumen Daskalov, Tchavdar Marinov, BRILL, 2013, ISBN 900425076X, p.303.
  4. ^ Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, Dimitar Bechev, Scarecrow Press, 2009, ISBN 0810862956, p. 75.
  5. ^ For freedom and perfection. The Life of Yane Sandansky, Mercia MacDermott, Journeyman press, London, 1988, p. 403.
  6. ^ same source
  7. ^ „Работническа искра" бр.4/1909-Битола
  8. ^ The Balkan Wars in the Eyes of the Warring Parties: Perceptions and Interpretations, Igor Despot, iUniverse, 2012, ISBN 1475947054, p. 26.