A perforated ulcer, is a condition where an untreated ulcer can burn through the wall of the stomach (or other areas of the gastrointestinal tract), allowing digestive juices and food to leach into the abdominal cavity. Treatment generally requires immediate surgery. The ulcer is known initially as a peptic ulcer before the ulcer burns through the full thickness of the stomach or duodenal wall. A diagnosis is made by taking an erect abdominal/chest X-ray (seeking air under the diaphragm). This is in fact one of the very few occasions in modern times where surgery is undertaken to treat an ulcer. Many of the perforated ulcers have been attributed to the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The incidence of perforated ulcer is steadily declining, though there are still incidents where it occurs. Causes include smoking and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A perforated ulcer can be grouped into a stercoral perforation which involves a number of different things that causes perforation of the intestine wall.
- Henry II of England (1133-1189, aged 56) had a perforated ulcer and died at Chinon Castle, France on 6 July 1189.
- Richard Pankhurst (1834–1897) had a perforated ulcer and died in 1897.
- Thomas Preston (1860–1900) had a perforated ulcer and died in 1900.
- Rudolph Valentino (1895–1926, aged 31) had a perforated ulcer and died on August 23, 1926.
- Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936, aged 70) died of perforated duodenal ulcer on 18 January 1936.
- James Joyce (1882–1941, aged 58) had a perforated ulcer and died on January 13, 1941, in Zürich.
- Charlie Parker (1920–1955, aged 35) had a perforated ulcer, and died on March 12, 1955.
- Albert Blithe (1923–1967, aged 44) had a perforated ulcer and died on December 17, 1967.
- Gene Vincent (1935–1971, aged 36) had a ruptured stomach ulcer and died on October 12, 1971. 
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1892–1973, aged 81) had a perforated ulcer and died on September 2, 1973.
- Count Dante (1939-1975, aged 36) died of internal hemorrhaging caused by a bleeding ulcer, on May 25, 1975.
- Ian Hendry (1931—1984, aged 53) died of a stomach haemorrhage in London, aged 53.
- Gene Clark (1944-1991, aged 46) had perforated ulcer and died on May 24, 1991.
- Doug Hepburn (1926–2000, aged 74) had a perforated ulcer and died on November 22, 2000.
- Philip Agee (1935–2008, aged 72) had a perforated ulcer and died on January 7, 2008.
- Barbara Bush (born 1925) was treated for a perforated ulcer in November 2008.
- Tara Palmer-Tomkinson (1971 – 2017, aged 45) had a perforated ulcer and died on February 8, 2017.
- Thomas Gardner (born 1996) had a perforated duodenal ulcer on February 8, 2016 and was treated the following day with emergency surgery.
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- "Palmer-Tomkinson 'died due to ulcer'". BBC News. 15 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.