James Joyce

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Portrait of James Joyce
Joyce in Zürich by Conrad Ruf [de] (c. 1918)

James Joyce signature.svg

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet, teacher, and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde movement and is regarded as one of the most influential and important writers of the 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses (1922), a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles, most famously stream of consciousness. Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners (1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1939). His other writings include three books of poetry, a play, his published letters and occasional journalism.

Joyce was born in Dublin into a middle-class family. A brilliant student, he attended the Jesuit Clongowes Wood College in County Kildare, then, briefly, the Christian Brothers-run O'Connell School before excelling at the Jesuit Belvedere College, despite the chaotic family life imposed by his father's unpredictable finances. He went on to attend University College Dublin.

In 1904, in his early 20s, Joyce emigrated to continental Europe with his partner (and later wife) Nora Barnacle. They lived in Trieste, Paris, and Zürich. Although most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe centres on Dublin and is populated largely by characters who closely resemble family members, enemies, and friends from his time there. Ulysses in particular is set with precision in the streets and alleyways of the city. Shortly after the publication of the book, he elucidated this preoccupation, saying, "For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I can get to the heart of all the cities of the world. In the particular is contained the universal."[1]

Early life[edit]

Joyce's birth and baptismal certificate

On 2 February 1882, Joyce was born at 41 Brighton Square, Rathgar, Dublin, Ireland.[2] Joyce's father was John Stanislaus Joyce and his mother was Mary Jane "May" (née Murray). He was the eldest of 10 surviving siblings; two died of typhoid. He was baptised with the name James Augustine Joyce[a] according to the rites of the Catholic Church in the nearby St Joseph's Church in Terenure on 5 February 1882 by Rev. John O'Mulloy.[b] Joyce's godparents were Philip and Ellen McCann.[7]

John Stanislaus Joyce's family came from Fermoy in County Cork; they had owned a small salt and lime works. Joyce's paternal grandfather, James Augustine Joyce, married Ellen O'Connell, daughter of John O'Connell, a Cork alderman who owned a drapery business and other properties in Cork City. Ellen's family claimed kinship with Daniel O'Connell.[8] The Joyce family's purported ancestor, Seán Mór Seoighe was a stonemason from Connemara.[9]

Joyce aged six, 1888

In 1887, his father was appointed rate collector by Dublin Corporation; the family subsequently moved to the fashionable adjacent small town of Bray, 12 miles (19 km) from Dublin. Around this time, Joyce was attacked by a dog, leading to his lifelong cynophobia.[10] He also suffered from astraphobia,[11] which he had acquired through a superstitious aunt who had described thunderstorms as a sign of God's wrath.[12][c]

In 1891, Joyce wrote a poem on the death of Charles Stewart Parnell. His father was angry at the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic Church, the Irish Home Rule Party, and the British Liberal Party and the resulting collaborative failure to secure Home Rule for Ireland. The Irish Party had dropped Parnell from leadership, but the Vatican's role in allying with the British Conservative Party to prevent home rule left a lasting impression on the young Joyce.[15] The elder Joyce had the poem printed and even sent a part to the Vatican Library. In November, John Joyce was entered in Stubbs' Gazette (a publisher of bankruptcies) and suspended from work. In 1893, John Joyce was dismissed with a pension, beginning the family's slide into poverty caused mainly by his drinking and financial mismanagement.[16]

Joyce had begun his education at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school near Clane, County Kildare, in 1888, but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce then studied at home and briefly at the Christian Brothers O'Connell School on North Richmond Street, Dublin, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College, in 1893. This came about because of a chance meeting his father had with a Jesuit priest called John Conmee, who knew the family, and Joyce was given a reduction in fees to attend Belvedere.[17] In 1895, Joyce, now aged 13, was elected to join the Sodality of Our Lady by his peers there.[18] Joyce spent five years at Belvedere, his intellectual formation guided by the principles of Jesuit education laid down in the Ratio Studiorum.[19] While at the school, he significantly developed his writing talents, winning first place for English composition in his final two years[20] before graduating in 1898.[21]

University years[edit]

Bust of Joyce on St Stephen's Green, Dublin

Joyce enrolled at University College in Dublin in 1898, studying English, French, and Italian.[22] He became active in theatrical and literary circles in the city. Many of the acquaintances he made at University College Dublin appeared as characters in his works.[23] His closest colleagues included leading figures of the generation, most notably, George Clancy, Tom Kettle, and Francis Sheehy-Skeffington,[24]. While at University College, he was also exposed to the scholasticism of Thomas Aquinas, which continued to have a strong influence on his thought for the rest of his life.[25] Joyce also continued to develop as an author. In 1900, his laudatory review of Henrik Ibsen's When We Dead Awaken was published in The Fortnightly Review; it was his first publication. He subsequently sent a fan letter in Norwegian to Ibsen.[26][d] Inspired by Ibsen's works,[28] Joyce wrote his first play, A Brilliant Career,[29] which he later destroyed.[30][e] He also translated some of the poetry of Paul Verlaine,[32] an experience that would impact his writing style in the years to come.[33]

In 1901, the National Census of Ireland listed Joyce as a 19 year-old unmarried, Irish- and English-speaking student living with his mother and father, six sisters, and three brothers at Royal Terrace (now Inverness Road) in Clontarf, Dublin.[34] It was at this time he became friends with Oliver St. John Gogarty,[35] who became the model for Buck Mulligan in Ulysses.[23] Near the end of this year, Joyce was first introduced to the Irish public by Arthur Griffith. In November 1901, Joyce had written an article,The Day of the Rabblement, criticizing the Irish Literary Theatre for its unwillingness to produce the works of playwrights like Henrik Ibsen, Leo Tolstoy, and Gerhart Hauptmann.[36] He protested against Irish writers he felt had conceded to a nostalgic populism and argued for an outward-looking, cosmopolitan literature.[37] Because he mentioned Gabriele D'Annunzio's novel, Il fuoco [The Flame],[38] which was on the Roman Index, his college magazine refused to print it. Joyce, along with Sheehy-Skeffington who had also had an essay rejected, had their essay jointly printed and distributed locally. Griffith wrote a piece in his newspaper, United Irishman decrying the censorship of Joyce.[39]

Joyce graduated from University College in October 1902. Thereafter, he decided to study medicine[40] and began attending lectures at the Catholic University Medical School in Dublin.[41] When he learned that the medical school refused to provide a tutoring position for him to pay for his education, he decided to leave Dublin and study medicine in Paris instead.[42] By the end of January 1903, he had given up plans to study medicine,[43] but he stayed in Paris, often reading late in the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève.[44] He frequently wrote home claiming ill health due to his change of diet, the water, and the cold weather,[45] often appealing for money his family could ill-afford.[46]

Post-university years in Dublin[edit]

In April 1903, Joyce learned his mother was dying[f] and immediately returned to Ireland.[53] While tending to her, Joyce would read draft chapters of what would become Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man at her bedside as she lay dying.[54] Before her death on 13 August,[55] his mother tried unsuccessfully to get him to make his confession and to take communion.[56][g] After she died, Joyce and his brother Stanislaus refused to kneel with other members of the family praying at her bedside.[58] In the months after her death, the Joyce household began to fall apart as John Joyce was continuously drunk and became more abusive.[59] For a while, Joyce managed to scrape together a living by reviewing books,[60] and Joyce himself spent much of his time carousing with Gogarty and colleagues from the college.[61]

On 10 June 1904, Joyce met Nora Barnacle, a twenty year-old woman from Galway city, who was working in Dublin as a chambermaid.[62] They had their first outing together on 16 June 1904,[h], walking to the Dublin suburb of Ringsend, where Nora masturbated him.[65] This event was commemorated by providing the date for the action of Ulysses, which is now known in popular culture as "Bloomsday" in honor of the novel's main character Leopold Bloom.[66][i] This began a life-long relationship, which only ended when Joyce died: he and Nora were living together by the end of the year and eventually married in a civil wedding in 1931.[68] Soon after his Ringsend date with Nora, Joyce, who had been carousing with his medical school colleagues,[69] approached a young woman in St Stephen's Green and was beaten up by her companion; he was picked up and dusted off by an acquaintance of his father's, Alfred H. Hunter, who took him into his home to tend to his injuries. Hunter was rumoured to be a Jew and to have an unfaithful wife, and would serve as one of the models for Leopold Bloom, the protagonist of Ulysses.[70]

Throughout 1904, Joyce continued to seek to develop his literary reputation. On 7 January he attempted to publish an essay-story examining aesthetics called A Portrait of the Artist.[71] but it was rejected by the intellectual journal Dana. He then decided to revise the essay-story into a novel he called Stephen Hero, a fictional rendering of Joyce's youth. He worked on this project for a number of years but eventually grew frustrated with its direction and abandoned it. He never published in this form[j] and completely rewrote it as A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, which was published more than ten years later.[73] The Dana did publish one of Joyce's poems in August,[74] and later in the year he wrote a longer satirical poem "The Holy Office",[75] which parodied William Butler Yeats's poem "To Ireland in the Coming Times",[76][k] and once more mocked the Irish Literary Revival.[79] It was also rejected for publication as being "unholy".[80] He also wrote the collection of poems Chamber Music at this time;[81] it too was rejected for publication.[82][l] During this time, George William Russell[m] did publish three of Joyce's short stories that would later appear in The Dubliners in the Irish Homestead: "The Sisters", "Eveline", and "After the Race".[87]

During this time, Joyce also sought to make a reputation as a musical performer, as he was a talented tenor.[88][n] On 8 May 1904, he participated as a contestant in the Feis Ceoil,[90] an Irish music competition for promising composers, instrumentalists and singers.[91] In the months before the contest, Joyce took singing lessons with two voice instructors, Benedetto Palmieri and Vincent O'Brien;[92] he also paid the entry fee by pawning some of his books.[93] For the contest, Joyce had to sing three songs. He did well with the first two, but when he was told he had to sight read the third, he refused.[94] Nevertheless, Joyce still won the third-place medal.[o] After the contest, Palmieri wrote Joyce that Luigi Denza, who was the composer of the popular song Funiculì, Funiculà and the judge for the contest,[99] spoke highly of his voice and would have given him first place but for the sight-reading and lack of sufficient training.[100] Palmieri even offered to give Joyce free singing lessons afterward. Joyce refused the lessons, but continued singing in Dublin concerts that year.[101] His performance at a concert given on 27 August solidified Nora's devotion to him.[102]

In September, Joyce was finding it difficult to get a place to live and moved into Martello Tower, which Gogarty was renting.[103] After six nights Joyce left in the middle of the night when both Gogarty and another roommate, Dermot Chenevix Trench, fired a pistol at some pans hanging directly over Joyce's bed.[104] Soon afterward, Joyce and Nora, with the help of funds from Lady Gregory and a few other acquaintances, left Ireland to live on the continent.[105]

"Exile" years[edit]

1904–1906: Zürich, Pola, and Trieste[edit]

Joyce in Zürich, in 1915

In October 1904 Joyce and Nora went into self-imposed exile.[106] Briefly stopping in London and Paris to secure additional funds,[107] they went to Zürich in Switzerland and stayed there for a little over a week.[108] Joyce had been informed through an agent in England there was a vacancy at the Berlitz Language School, but there was no position.[109] Though Joyce decided he had been swindled,[110] the director of the school sent Joyce on to Trieste,[111] which was then in Austria-Hungary (until the First World War), and is today in Italy. Once again, he found no position was available for him,[p] but with the help of Almidano Artifoni, director of the Trieste Berlitz School, he finally secured a teaching position in Pola, which is now part of Croatia, but was then Austria-Hungary's major naval port. He was there from October 1904 to March 1905, mainly teaching English to Austro-Hungarian naval officers and it was there that Nora became pregnant with their first child.[113] He remained bogged down with his novel Stephen Hero, but did finish one of his short stories while he was there: "Clay", which would eventually become part of Dubliners.[114] Joyce disliked Pola, calling it a "back-of-God-speed place- a naval Siberia",[115] because his freedom of movement as a foreigner was severely limited due to the port's strategic importance. Nevertheless, his time in Pola marks the point when his sustained fictional writing began.[116] He went back to Trieste when he got a job to teach there.[117][q]

Joyce moved to Trieste for the first time in 1905. Though he would leave the city throughout the years- briefly moving to Rome, travelling to Dublin, and escaping to Zürich for the duration of World War I- it became the place of residence he repeatedly returned to until 1920[119] was like a second Dublin for him.[120] Joyce's period in Trieste was a critical time in his development as a writer.[121][r] While there, he completed the Dubliners, reworked Stephen Hero into Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, and wrote his only published play Exiles and decided to make Ulysses a full-length novel as he created his notes and jottings for the work.[123] Joyce worked out the characters of Leopold and Molly Bloom in Trieste.[124] Many of the novel's details were taken from Joyce's observation of the city and its people,[125] and some of its stylistic innovations appear to have been influenced by Futurism,[126][s] There are even words of the Triestine dialect in Finnegans Wake.[128]

The 'Stella Polare' café in Trieste was often visited by Joyce.

When the 23 year-old Joyce arrived in Trieste in March, he immediately began work teaching English at the Berlitz school.[129] On 27 July 1905, Nora gave birth to their first child, George (known as "Georgio").[130] Feeling that he needed additional support, Joyce asked Stanislaus to move to Trieste and got a position for him at the Berlitz school. Stanislaus left for Trieste in October and moved in with Joyce as soon as he arrived. Much of Stanislaus's salary went to supporting the Joyce household and sometimes Joyce would directly collect Stanislaus's paycheck himself.[131] In February 1906, all four members of the household-Joyce, Nora, Stanislaus, and Georgio- moved into an apartment with a Florentine colleague Joyce had met in Pola, Alessandro Francini Bruni; partly to save money and partly to provide company for Nora.[132]

During his first stay in Trieste, Joyce continued to develop as an independent author. In June, before Georgio was born, Joyce felt financially secure enough that he had his satirical poem "Holy Office" printed and sent copies to Stanislaus to distribute to his former associates in Dublin.[133] He had written 24 chapters of Stephen Hero.[134] and he completed all but the last short story that would eventually comprise the final version of the Dubliners.[135][t] He also tried unsuccessfully to publish various versions of the Dubliners during this time. Grant Richards, a London publisher, had contracted with Joyce to publish them but the language in the book made the printers unwilling to print it, as English law could hold them liable if they were brought to court for indecent language.[137] Richards and Joyce went back and forth trying to find a solution where the book could avoid legal liability while preserving Joyce's sense of artistic integrity. As they continued to negotiate, Richards began to scrutinize the stories more carefully and became concerned that the book would damage his publishing house's reputation, eventually backing down from his publishing agreement.[138]

1906–1915: Rome, Trieste, and sojourns to Dublin[edit]

In July, the head of the Berlitz school left after embezzling some of the school funds. Artifoni took over the school but let Joyce know that he could only afford to keep one brother on. Joyce, who was tired of Trieste and frustrated with getting The Dubliners published, found a job as a correspondence clerk in a Roman bank that was twice his current salary as an English instructor.[139] and went there at the end of July 1906,[140] leaving Stanislaus in Trieste. Though Joyce personally felt that he accomplished very little during his brief stay in Rome,[141] it had a large impact on his life, particularly his ongoing development as a writer.[142] During their stay, Nora became pregnant with their second child.[143] It was here that Joyce finally succeeded in having a major work published: through the recommendation of the British poet Arthur Symons, the publisher Elkin Mathews agreed to print Chamber Music.[144] At this time, Joyce began an in-depth reading of the socialist historian Guglielmo Ferrero, whose works Joyce had been familiar with in Trieste.[145] Ferraro expressed an anti-heroic view toward history, arguments against militarism, and conflicted attitudes toward Jews;[146] ideas that would find their way into Ulysses, particularly the character of Leopold Bloom .[147] When Joyce had time to write, he used it to revise The Dubliners and work on Stephen Hero,[148] but more importantly for Joyce's writing, Rome was the birthplace for the idea of Ulysses,[149] which was originally conceived as a short story, as well as his final tale for the "Dubliners", "The Dead".[150][u] Also, the trip to Rome would eventually become one his inspirations for his play Exiles[152] Disliking his job as a bank clerk, running out of funds, and realizing he'd need support now that another child was expected, Joyce returned to Trieste.[153]

Joyce arrived back in Trieste in March 1907. Joyce had no full-time work. He continued to teach English, doing part time work for Berlitz and seeking out private students.[154] One of his students was the author Ettore Schmitz, better known by pen name Italo Svevo. They met after Joyce's return and became lasting friends and mutual critics.[155] Svevo was a Catholic of Jewish origin who became one of the models for Leopold Bloom,[156] and much of what Joyce knew about Judaism was learned from Svevo.[157] Svevo also supported Joyce's identity as an author, helping him work through his writer's block with Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.[158] Roberto Prezioso, another student of Joyce and the editor of the Italian newspaper, Piccolo della Sera. helped him make some money by commissioning him to write articles for the newspaper; Joyce quickly produced three articles addressed to Italian irredentism in Trieste through indirectly paralleling it with the struggle for Irish independence from British rule.[159] He also gave a series of lectures on Ireland and the arts at Trieste's Università Popolare.[160] In May, Joyce was struck by an attack of rheumatic fever[161] that left him ill and incapable of work for weeks.[v] The illness exacerbated eye problems that would plague him for the rest of his life.[167] Over the years, he had at least a dozen eye surgeries and by 1930 was practically blind in the left eye and his right eye functioned poorly.[168] While Joyce was still recovering from the attack, Lucia was born on July 26, 1907.[169][w] During his convalescence, he was also able to finish the "The Dead", the last story of Dubliners.[171]

In 1908, Joyce, who was a heavy drinker,[172] temporarily gave up alcohol.[173] He also took up singing lessons again [174] and decided to rewrite Stephen Hero, which he had been constantly working on for years, as the more concise and interior A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, completing the third chapter by April.[175] Around this time, he began translating a work of the Irish Literary Revival, John Millington Synge's Riders to the Sea into Italian.[176] All the while, Joyce kept trying to find a publisher for Dubliners, but was having no success. He finally submitted it to George Roberts, who owned the publishing house, Maunsel and Company, which published new Irish writing.[177]

At the end of July 1909, Joyce received a year's fees in advance from one of his students and decided to return to Ireland to introduce Georgio to both sides of the family, his own in Dublin and Nora's in Galway.[178] While in Dublin, he met with his old friends and renewed memories, as well as applying to become the Chair of Italian at his alma mater, which had become University College Dublin[x], but it didn't open a position.[180] He also met with Roberts, who seemed positive about publishing the The Dubliners.[181] He returned to Trieste in September with his sister Eva, who would help Nora run the home.[182] Joyce only stayed in Trieste for a month, as he almost immediately came upon the idea of starting a cinema in Dublin, which unlike Trieste had none. He quickly got the backing of some Triestine business men and returned to Dublin in October. With their backing, he launched Ireland's first cinema, the Volta Cinematograph,[183] which was initially well-received, but fell apart after Joyce left.[184] He returned to Trieste in January 1910 with another sister, Eileen.[185][y]

From 1910 to 1912, Joyce continued to struggle to make ends meet, primarily teaching English. It was during this time that his conflicts with his brother Stanislaus, who often became frustrated with supporting Joyce financially, finally reached its peak.[188] In 1912, Joyce once more lectured at the Università Popolare on various topics in English literature. He also applied for a teaching diploma in English at the University of Padua.[189] He performed very well on the qualification tests, but was denied because Italy did not recognize his Irish degree. In 1912, Joyce and his family returned to Dublin again briefly in the summer.[190] While there, his three year-long struggle with Roberts over the publication of Dubliners[191] came to an end as Roberts refused to publish the book due to concerns of libel. Roberts had the printed sheets destroyed, though Joyce was able to obtain a copy of the proof sheets.[z] When Joyce returned to Trieste, he wrote the poem "Gas from a Burner", an invective against Roberts, and he never returned to Dublin again.[193]

In 1913, Joyce's fortunes changed for the better. Grant Richards, to whom he had resubmitted The Dubliners, agreed to publish it this time. It would be issued in the following year on 15 June 1914,[194] eight and a half years since Joyce had first submitted it to him.[195] In addition, Joyce's career as a writer opened up when he found an unexpected advocate in Ezra Pound,[aa] who reached out to him on the advice of Yeats.[197] Pound, who he had never met, wrote that he wanted to include a poem from Chamber Music, "I Hear an Army Charging upon the Land" into the journal Des Imagistes. In the years that followed, they struck up a correspondence that would last until the late 1930s. Pound would strive to ensure that Joyce's works were published and those works would get publicity through reviews.[198] Pound also proposed to publish Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man serially in the magazine, The Egoist. Joyce agreed. Joyce's pace of writing increased during this time. He completed Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by 1914.[199] He began Giacomo Joyce, a novelette exploring a teacher's infatuation with a student, which he eventually abandoned;[200] he resumed work on Exiles,[201] which he completed in 1915; and, he also began writing Ulysses.[202] In August 1914, World War I broke out. Although Joyce and Stanislaus were subjects of England, which was now at war with Austria-Hungary, they remained in Trieste. Even when Stanislaus, who had publicly expressed his sympathy for the Triestine irredentists, was interned at the beginning of January 1915, Joyce chose to remain. In May 1915 Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary,[203] and less than a month later Joyce finally decided to take his family to Zürich in neutral Switzerland.[204]

1915-1920: Zürich and Trieste[edit]

Joyce arrived in Zürich as a double exile: An Irishman with a British passport and a Triestine on parole from Austria-Hungary.[205] To get to Switzerland, he had to promise the Austro-Hungarian officials that he would not help the Allies during the war, and he and his family had to leave almost all of their possessions in Trieste.[206] During the war, he was kept under surveillance by both the English and Austro-Hungarian secret service.[207]

Joyce's first concern was to make a living. One of Nora's relatives sent them a small sum to cover the first few months. Pound and Yeats worked with the British government to get him a stipend from the Royal Literary Fund in 1915, and a grant from the British civil list the following year.[208] In the following years, Joyce received large, regular sums of money from the editor Harriet Shaw Weaver, who operated The Egoist, and the psychotherapist Edith Rockefeller McCormick, who lived in Zürich studying under Carl Jung.[209] Weaver continued to finance Joyce throughout the entirety of his life and even paid for his funeral.[210] Between 1917 and the beginning of 1919, Joyce was financially secure and lived quite well;[211] the family would sometimes stay in Locarno in the Italian-speaking region of Switzerland.[212] But health problems remained a constant issue. During their time in Zürich, both Joyce and Nora suffered illnesses that were diagnosed as "nervous breakdowns"[213] and he had to undergo many eye surgeries.[214].

At the time of Joyce's arrival, Zürich was the center of a vibrant expatriate community. The Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin spent time at the Cafe Odeon, which Joyce sometimes visited,[215] and they may have met.[216] Joyce also became aware of Dada around this time, which was coming into its own at the Cabaret Voltaire.[217][ab] However, Joyce's evening hangout became the Cafe Pfauen.[219] There, he would get to know a number of the artists living in the city at the time, including the sculptor August Suter,[220] and the painter Frank Budgen, [221] and often used time with them as material for Ulysses.[222] He also made the acquaintance of the writer Stefan Zweig,[223] who organized the premiere of Exiles in Munich in August 1919.[224] He would continue to develop his understanding of music, learning music theory from Philipp Jarnach, working to stage music with Otto Luening,[225] and making the acquaintance of Ferruccio Busoni.[226] Much of what he learned about musical notation and counterpoint found its way into Ulysses, particularly the "Sirens" section.[227]

Joyce also co-founded the acting company "The English Players", and became its business manager. The company, which was pitched to the British government as a contribution to the war effort,[228] mainly staged works by Irish playwrights, such as Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw, and John Millington Synge.[229] For Synge's Riders to the Sea, Nora played a principle role and Joyce sang offstage, [230] which he also did when Robert Browning's In a Balcony was staged. Joyce had hoped that the company would eventually be able to stage his own play, Exiles.[231] But Joyce's participation in the company eventually declined in the wake of the Great Influenza epidemic of 1918, though the company continued until 1920.[232]. Joyce's tenure with the "English Players" was also notable as Joyce got into a legal suit with Henry Wilfred Carr, a wounded English war veteran who served as a consul in Zürich. Joyce and Carr got into a dispute about Carr's compensation for his role in The Importance of Being Earnest. The disagreement went to court, Carr suing for compensation and Joyce suing for libel. The cases were settled in 1919 — Joyce won the compensation lawsuit, but lost the libel case.[233] The incident ended up creating acrimony between the British consulate and Joyce during his final years in Zürich.[234]

During his time in Zürich, Joyce avoided the politics of World War I and maintained a strict neutrality,[235] though he did ridicule the idea that the great powers were fighting on behalf of small nations.[236] He also made few comments regarding the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland. He was sympathetic to the Irish independence movement,[237] but he was out of sympathy with its violence.[238][ac]

He spent his writing time intently focused on Ulysses.[240] He also had to continue struggling with getting his work published. Some of the serial installments of "The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man" in The Egoist had been censored by the printers, but Joyce did get it published in full by B. W. Huebsch in 1916.[241] In 1918, Pound got a commitment from Margaret Caroline Anderson, who was owner and editor of The Little Review, to publish Ulysses serially.[242]

In 1919, Joyce found himself in financial straits again. McCormick had stopped paying her stipend, in part because he refused to submit to psychoanalysis from Jung.[243] Furthermore, he was becoming isolated as the emigres in Zürich returned home, and Zürich had become expensive to live in after the war. In October 1919, Joyce's family returned to Trieste but only stayed for eight months. It was no longer part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, which had ceased to exist; it was now an Italian city in post-war recovery.[244] At this time, Joyce went to Sirmione, Italy, to meet Pound, who made arrangements for him to move to Paris.[245] Joyce and his family packed their belongings and headed for Paris in June 1920.[246]

1920–1941: Paris and Zürich[edit]

Joyce in a September 1922 issue of Shadowland, photographed by Man Ray

When Joyce and his family arrived in Paris in July 1920, their visit was intended to be a layover on their way to London.[247] In the first month, Joyce made the acquaintance of Sylvia Beach, who ran the Rive Gauche bookshop, Shakespeare and Company.[248] Beach quickly became a major source of support for Joyce, providing financial support[249] and becoming one of Joyce's publishers.[250] Through Beach and Pound, Joyce quickly joined the intellectual circle of Paris and was integrated into the international modernist artist community,[251] Paris became the Joyce's regular residence for twenty years, although they moved repeatedly never settled into one place.[252] Joyce also met Valery Larbaud during his early days in Paris,[253] who would champion Joyce's works to the French[254] and supervise the French translation of Ulysses.[255]

Joyce finished the writing of Ulysses near the end of 1921, but even before then he was having difficulties publishing the work. With the financial support of the lawyer John Quinn,[256] Margaret Anderson and her co-editor Jane Heap had been attempting to serially publish as much of the novel in The Little Review as they could.[257] In January 1919, the issue with first installment of the "Lestrygygonians" section in January, may have suppressed because it was thought to be along code, and in May, the second installment of "Scylla and Charybdis" was suppressed by the the Post Office Solicitor in Washington D. C. as lewd and obscene. [258] Then, in September, 1920 an unsolicited copy containing the "Nausicaa" episode was sent to the daughter of a New York attorney, which led ultimately to the filing of an official complaint .[256]. The trial proceedings continued until February 1921, when both Anderson and Healy, who were defended by Quinn, were fined $50 each for publishing obscenity[259] and they were ordered to cease publishing of Ulysses was ordered to cease.[260] Huebsch had been interested in publishing it in the United States, but withdrew after the trial,[261] and Weaver was unable to find a printer for it in England.[262] Eventually, the novel was banned for obscenity in the United Kingdom in 1922 and would not be allowed to be published there until 1936.[263]

In 1922, Beach, who had no experience with publication, agreed to publish Ulysses through her bookshop, Shakespeare and Company.[264] Beach had copies mailed to people in Paris and the United States who had subscribed to get a copy; Weaver made a copy from Beach's plates and had them mailed to subscribers in England.[265] Soon, the postal officials of both countries began confiscating the books.[266] Eventually, the books would wind up being smuggled into both countries.[267][ad] Because the work had no copyright in the United States at this time, "bootleg" versions appeared, including pirate versions from publisher Samuel Roth, who only ceased publishing parts of the book in 1928 when he received a court injunction.[269]

In 1923, Joyce began his next work, which would become Finnegans Wake[270] [ae] and would take sixteen years to complete.[272] Joyce initially called it Work in Progress after Ford Madox Ford called it by that name when a portion of the work, the "Mamalujo" episode, was published in his magazine, The Transatlantic Review, in April 1924. Joyce did not publicly reveal the name of his work, Finnegans Wake, until 1939.[273] In 1926, he met Eugene and Maria Jolas, who offered to serialize the book in their magazine transition. When it first came out, some of Joyce's supporters, like Stanislaus and Pound,[274] commented negatively on it, and it was critisized by writers like Seán Ó Faoláin, Wyndham Lewis, Rebecca West.[275] In response, the Jolas, with the support of Joyce, organized the publication of a book called Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress, which consisted of previously written by supporters, including Samuel Beckett, William Carlos Williams, that was meant reply to these critics[276] as well as market Work in Progress to audiences.[277] Finnegans Wake was completed in 1939, and was published by Faber and Faber[278] with the assistance of T. S. Eliot.[279][af]

Joyce's health continued to be a problem for him throughout the 1920s and into the 1930s, particularly his eyes. During these years, he underwent around a dozen eye operations[281], and became nearly blind.[282] He also underwent oral surgery for issues related to his eye problem in which all his teeth were removed.[283] At one point, Joyce became worried he could not finished Finnegans Wake, he asked the Irish author James Stephens to complete the work if Joyce could not finish it.[284] Though, Joyce was able to continue and published his second collection of poetry, Pomes Penyeach, which consisted of thirteen poems that Joyce had written during his exile in Trieste, Zürich and Paris.[285]

In 1930, Joyce begin thinking of establishing a residence in London once more,[286] primarily to assure that Giorgio, who had just married Helen Fleischmann, would have his inheritance secured under British Law[287] Joyce moved to London, obtained a long-term lease on a flat, registered on the electoral role, and became liable for jury service; after living together for twenty-seven years, Joyce and Nora got married at the Registry Office in Kensington on 4 July 1931.[288] Joyce was to stay in London for at least six months to establish his residency, but Lucia he abandoned his flat and returned to Paris later in the year when Lucia was showing signs of mental mental illness. He planned to return, but never did, and later became disaffected with England.[289]

In subsequent years, Joyce lived in Paris but frequently travelled to Switzerland, for eye surgery[ag] or for treatment for Lucia, [291] who was diagnosed with schizophrenia. [292] Lucia was analysed by Carl Jung, who had previously written that Ulysess was similar on schizophrenic writing.[293][ah] Jung suggested that she and her father were two people heading to the bottom of a river, except that Joyce was diving and Lucia was sinking.[295][ai] Though Joyce spent a great deal of effort caring for Lucia, she remained permanently institutionalized after his death.[298]

In the late 1930s, Joyce became increasingly concerned about the rise of fascism and anti-semitism.[299] As early as 1938, Joyce was involved in helping a number Jews escape Nazi persecution.[300] After the defeat of France in World War II, Joyce and his family also fled from Nazi occupation, returning once more to Zürich where he lived for the remainder of his life.[301]

Joyce and politics[edit]

Joyce took an active interest in socialism[302] and anarchism[303] When he lived in Dublin, he had attended socialist meetings and his early writing approvingly analysed the individualist philosophies of Benjamin Tucker and Oscar Wilde's The Soul of Man Under Socialism,[304] and 1905, while in Trieste, he described his politics as "those of a socialist artist."[305] His practical engagement in politics waned after 1907,[306] in part due to the "endless internecine warfare" he observed in socialist organizations. Many Joyce scholars such as Richard Ellmann, Dominic Manganiello, Robert Scholes, and George J. Watson agree that Joyce's interest in socialism and pacifistic anarchism continued for much of his life. But, the form and content of his work continued to reflect a political commitment,[307] which was sympathetic to freedom, individualism and resisting authoritarian force.[308] In 1918, he declared himself "against every state"[309] and later in the 1930s, Joyce rated his experiences with the defeated multi-ethnic Habsburg Empire as: "They called the Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires."[310]

Joyce's politics impacted his attitude toward his British passport. As Joyce's early writings made clear, he recognized the negative effects of the English occupation on Ireland. He was sympathetic to the Irish struggle to overcome this oppression,[311] and in Trieste in 1907, he expressed strong support for the early Sinn Féin movement.[312] But throughout his life, Joyce refused to exchange his British passport for an Irish one.[313] When he had a choice, he opted to renew his British passport in 1935 instead of obtaining one from the Irish Free State,[314][aj] and he chose to keep it in 1940 when accepting an Irish passport would have helped him to more easily leave Vichy France.[316] His refusal to change his passport was partly due to the advantages that a British passport gave him internationally.[317] and partly due to his being out of sympathy with Irish nationalist politics,[318] particularly those of the Irish Free State,[319] and the political use of the Irish language.[320][ak]

Joyce and religion[edit]

The interior of the Greek Orthodox Church of San Nicolò in Trieste, where Joyce occasionally attended services.[322]

The issue of Joyce's relationship with religion remains controversial.[323] Early in life, he lapsed from Catholicism,[324] and first-hand statements by himself,[al] his brother Stanislaus[am] and Nora[an] attest that he did not consider himself a Catholic.

Nevertheless, Joyce's work is deeply influenced by Catholicism,[328] In particular, his intellectual foundations were grounded in the Jesuitical training of his childhood.[329][ao] He also continued to occasionally attend Mass after he left Ireland. When he lived in Trieste or was alone in Paris, he would wake up early to attend Catholic Mass on Holy Thursday and Good Friday.[331][ap] Later in life, while living in Zǜrich during World War I he also developed an appreciation for Eastern Orthodox ritual.[333] He would attend Eastern Orthodox services in Trieste, stating that he liked the ceremonies better.[334]

Joyce's attitude toward Catholicism has been described as a kind of enigma in which there are two Joyces, a modern one who resisted Catholic tradition and another one who maintained his allegiance to the tradition.[335] His attitude has also been described in terms of a dialectic, in which Joyce's approach to Catholicism is both affirming and denying For example, Stephen Dedalus's statement in Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man "non-serviam [I will not serve]"[336] is qualified-"I will not serve that which I no longer believe",[337] and that the non-serviam will always be balanced by Stephen's "I am...[a] servant too"[338] and the "yes" of Molly Bloom's final soliquy[339] in Ulysses".[340] Some critics have suggested that Joyce's apparent apostacy was less a denial of faith than a transmutation,[342] a criticism of the Church's adverse impact on spiritual life and personal development.[343] Umberto Eco compared Joyce to medieval episcopi vagantes (wandering bishops), who left their discipline but not their cultural heritage of thought. Like them, Joyce maintains a sense of a curse celebrated through liturgical ritual.[344]

Nevertheless, T. S. Eliot believed he saw the outlook of a serious Christian in Joyce's work.[345] A number of Catholic critics suggest that Joyce never fully abandoned his faith,[346] that he continued wrestling with it throughout his writings, and that he became increasingly reconciled with it.[347] In their view, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake are expressions of a Catholic sensibility.[348] To support the point that Joyce never abandoned his faith, some of these critics insist that Stephen, the protagonist a A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Ulysses who questions Catholicism, does not represent the views of Joyce the author.[349]

Joyce's own responses to questions about his faith were often ambiguous. For example, during an interview after the completion of Ulysses, Joyce was asked "When did you leave the Catholic Church". He answered, "That's for the Church to say."[350]

Death[edit]

Horizontal gravestone saying "JAMES JOYCE", "NORA BARNACLE JOYCE", GEORGE JOYCE", and "...ASTA OSTERWALDER JO...", all with dates. Behind the stone is a green hedge and a seated statue of Joyce holding a book and pondering.
Grave of James Joyce in Zürich-Fluntern

On 11 January 1941, Joyce underwent surgery in Zürich for a perforated duodenal ulcer. He fell into a coma the following day. He awoke at 2 am on 13 January 1941, and asked a nurse to call his wife and son, before losing consciousness again. They were en route when he died 15 minutes later. Joyce was less than a month short of his 59th birthday.[351]

His body was buried in the Fluntern Cemetery, Zürich. Swiss tenor Max Meili sang "Addio terra, addio cielo" from Monteverdi's L'Orfeo at the burial service.[352] Although two senior Irish diplomats were in Switzerland at the time, neither attended Joyce's funeral, and the Irish government later declined Nora's offer to permit the repatriation of Joyce's remains. He had been a British subject all his life and only the British consul attended the funeral. When Joseph Walshe, secretary at the Department of External Affairs in Dublin, was informed of Joyce's death by Frank Cremins, chargé d'affaires at Bern, Walshe responded, "Please wire details of Joyce's death. If possible find out did he die a Catholic? Express sympathy with Mrs Joyce and explain inability to attend funeral."[353] Buried originally in an ordinary grave, Joyce was moved in 1966 to a more prominent "honour grave", with a seated portrait statue by American artist Milton Hebald nearby. Nora, whom he had married in 1931, survived him by 10 years. She is buried by his side, as is their son Giorgio, who died in 1976.[353]

In October 2019, a motion was put to Dublin City Council to plan and budget for the costs of the exhumations and reburials of Joyce and his family somewhere in Dublin, subject to his family's wishes.[354] The proposal immediately became controversial, with the Irish Times commenting: "...it is hard not to suspect that there is a calculating, even mercantile, aspect to contemporary Ireland's relationship to its great writers, whom we are often more keen to 'celebrate', and if possible monetise, than read".[355]

Major works[edit]

Dubliners[edit]

Title page saying 'DUBLINERS BY JAMES JOYCE', then a colophon, then 'LONDON / GRANT RICHARDS LTD. / PUBLISHERS'.
The title page of the first edition of Dubliners

Dubliners is a collection of 15 short stories by Joyce, first published in 1914, by Grant Richards Ltd.[356] They form a naturalistic depiction of Irish middle-class life in and around Dublin in the early years of the 20th century. The stories were written when Irish nationalism was at its peak, and a search for a national identity and purpose was raging; at a crossroads of history and culture, Ireland was jolted by converging ideas and influences.[aq] The stories centre on Joyce's idea of an epiphany: a moment when a character experiences a life-changing self-understanding or illumination. Many of the characters in Dubliners later appear in minor roles in Joyce's novel Ulysses.[358] The initial stories in the collection are narrated by child protagonists. Subsequent stories deal with the lives and concerns of progressively older people. This aligns with Joyce's tripartite division of the collection into childhood, adolescence, and maturity.

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man[edit]

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, published in 1916, is a nearly complete rewrite of the abandoned novel Stephen Hero. Joyce attempted to burn the original manuscript in a fit of rage during an argument with Nora, though to his subsequent relief it was rescued by his sister. It is a Künstlerroman, a kind of coming-of-age novel depicting the childhood and adolescence of the protagonist Stephen Dedalus and his gradual growth into artistic self-consciousness.[359] It functions both as an autobiographical fiction of the author and an autobiography of the fictional protagonist.[360] Some hints of the techniques Joyce frequently employed in later works, such as stream of consciousness, interior monologue, and references to a character's psychic reality rather than to his external surroundings are evident throughout this novel.[361]

Exiles and poetry[edit]

Despite early interest in the theatre, Joyce published only one play, Exiles, begun shortly after the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 and published in 1918. A study of a husband-and-wife relationship, the play looks back to The Dead (the final story in Dubliners) and forward to Ulysses, which Joyce began around the time of the play's composition.

Joyce published a number of books of poetry, His first full-length poetry collection was Chamber Music (1907), consisted of 36 short lyrics. This publication led to his inclusion in the Imagist Anthology, edited by Ezra Pound, who was a champion of Joyce's work. Other poetry Joyce published in his lifetime include "Gas from a Burner" (1912), Pomes Penyeach (1927), and "Ecce Puer" (written in 1932 to mark the birth of his grandson and the recent death of his father). It was published by the Black Sun Press in Collected Poems (1936).

Ulysses[edit]

Page saying 'ULYSSES by JAMES JOYCE will be published in the Autumn of 1921 by "SHAKESPEARE AND COMPANY" – SYLVIA BEACH – 8, RUE DUPUYTREN, PARIS – VIe'
Announcement of the initial publication of Ulysses
First edition of 1922

In Ulysses, Joyce employs stream of consciousness, parody, jokes, and almost every other literary technique to present his characters.[362] The action of the novel, which takes place in a single day, 16 June 1904, sets the characters and incidents of the Odyssey of Homer in modern Dublin, and represents Odysseus (Ulysses), Penelope, and Telemachus in the characters of Leopold Bloom, his wife Molly Bloom, and Stephen Dedalus, parodically contrasted with their lofty models. The book explores various areas of Dublin life, dwelling on its squalor and monotony. Nevertheless, the book is also an affectionately detailed study of the city, and Joyce claimed that if Dublin were to be destroyed in some catastrophe, it could be rebuilt, brick by brick, using his work as a model.[363] To achieve this level of accuracy, Joyce used the 1904 edition of Thom's Directory—a work that listed the owners and/or tenants of every residential and commercial property in the city. He also bombarded friends still living there with requests for information and clarification.

The book consists of 18 episodes, each covering roughly one hour of the day, beginning around about 8 a.m. and ending sometime after 2 a.m. the following morning. Each of the 18 chapters of the novel employs its own literary style. Each chapter also refers to a specific episode in Homer's Odyssey and has a specific colour, art, or science and bodily organ associated with it. This combination of kaleidoscopic writing with an extreme formal, schematic structure represents one of the book's major contributions to the development of 20th-century modernist literature.[364] Other contributions include the use of classical mythology as a framework for his book and the near-obsessive focus on external detail in a book in which much of the significant action is happening inside the minds of the characters. Nevertheless, Joyce complained that, "I may have oversystematised Ulysses," and played down the mythic correspondences by eliminating the chapter titles that had been taken from Homer.[365] Joyce was reluctant to publish the chapter titles because he wanted his work to stand separately from the Greek form.[citation needed] Although Joyce had circulated two versions of his schematic structure for the work, known as the Linati schema and the Gilbert schema, as early as 1921,[366] the schemas were developed after the novel had been started and were not something Joyce consulted when he began the work.[367]

Finnegans Wake[edit]

Joyce's method of stream of consciousness, literary allusions, and free dream associations was pushed to the limit in Finnegans Wake, which abandoned all conventions of plot and character construction, and is written in a peculiar and obscure English, based mainly on complex multilevel puns. This approach is similar to, but far more extensive than, that used by Lewis Carroll in Jabberwocky. This has led many readers and critics to apply Joyce's oft-quoted description in the Wake of Ulysses as his "usylessly unreadable Blue Book of Eccles"[368] to the Wake itself. However, readers have been able to reach a consensus about the central cast of characters and general plot.

Much of the wordplay in the book stems from the use of multilingual puns, which draw on a wide range of languages. The role played by Beckett and other assistants included collating words from these languages on cards for Joyce to use, and as Joyce's eyesight worsened, of writing the text from the author's dictation.[369]

The view of history propounded in this text is very strongly influenced by Giambattista Vico, and the metaphysics of Giordano Bruno of Nola are important to the interplay of the "characters". Vico propounded a cyclical view of history, in which civilisation rose from chaos, passed through theocratic, aristocratic, and democratic phases, and then lapsed back into chaos. The most obvious example of the influence of Vico's cyclical theory of history is to be found in the opening and closing words of the book. Finnegans Wake opens with the words "riverrun, past Eve and Adam's, from swerve of shore to bend of bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to Howth Castle and Environs" ("vicus" is a pun on Vico) and ends "A way a lone a last a loved a long the". In other words, the book ends with the beginning of a sentence and begins with the end of the same sentence, turning the book into one great cycle.[370] Indeed, Joyce said that the ideal reader of the Wake would suffer from "ideal insomnia",[371] and on completing the book, would turn to page one and start again, and so on in an endless cycle of reading.

Legacy[edit]

Bronze statue of Joyce standing in a coat and broadbrimmed hat: His head is cocked looking up, his left leg is crossed over his right, his right hand holds a cane, and his left is in his pants pocket, with the left part of his coat tucked back.
Statue of James Joyce on North Earl Street, Dublin

Joyce's work has been an important influence on writers and scholars such as Samuel Beckett,[372] Seán Ó Ríordáin,[373] Jorge Luis Borges,[374]Flann O'Brien,[375] Salman Rushdie,[376] Robert Anton Wilson,[377] John Updike,[378] David Lodge,[379] Cormac McCarthy,[380] and Joseph Campbell.[381] Ulysses has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire Modernist movement",[382] and Joyce has been said to have "unquestionable and colossal" influence on European Modernism.[383] The Bulgarian-French literary theorist Julia Kristeva characterised Joyce's novel writing as "polyphonic" and a hallmark of postmodernity alongside the poets Mallarmé and Rimbaud.[384]

Joyce's death mask, displayed at the James Joyce Tower and Museum

Joyce's influence is also evident in fields other than literature. The sentence "Three quarks for Muster Mark!" in Joyce's Finnegans Wake[385] is the source of the word "quark", the name of one of the elementary particles proposed by physicist Murray Gell-Mann in 1963.[386]

The work and life of Joyce is celebrated annually on 16 June, known as Bloomsday, in Dublin and in an increasing number of cities worldwide, and critical studies in scholarly publications, such as the James Joyce Quarterly, continue. Both popular and academic uses of Joyce's work were hampered by restrictions imposed by Stephen J. Joyce, Joyce's grandson, and executor of his literary estate until his 2020 death.[387] On 1 January 2012, those restrictions were lessened by the expiry of copyright protection of much of the published work of James Joyce.[388]

Museums and study centres[edit]

The National Library of Ireland has a large store of Joycean material, including manuscripts and notebooks, with much material made available online.[389] A joint venture between the library and University College Dublin, the Museum of Literature Ireland (branded MoLI in homage to Molly Bloom), the majority of whose exhibits are about Joyce and his work, has both a small permanent Joyce-related collection, and borrows from its parent institutions; its displays include "Copy No. 1" of Ulysses.[390] Dedicated centres in Dublin include the James Joyce Tower and Museum in Sandycove,[391] and the James Joyce Centre in North Great George's Street,[392] and there are also holdings and / or displays in the Trinity College Library, University College Dublin Library, and, modestly, the Dublin Writers Museum.[393]

Bibliography[edit]

Prose[edit]

Poetry collections[edit]

Play[edit]

Posthumous publications and drafts[edit]

Fiction

Non-Fiction

  • The Critical Writings of James Joyce (Eds. Ellsworth Mason and Richard Ellmann, 1959)
  • Letters of James Joyce Vol. 1 (Ed. Stuart Gilbert, 1957)
  • Letters of James Joyce Vol. 2 (Ed. Richard Ellmann, 1966)
  • Letters of James Joyce Vol. 3 (Ed. Richard Ellmann, 1966)
  • Selected Letters of James Joyce (Ed. Richard Ellmann, 1975)

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Joyce's middle name was mistakenly registered as Augusta at the time of his birth,[3] but he was named and baptised James Augustine Joyce, as shown in the Birth and Baptismal Certificate re-issued in 2004 and reproduced in this article. He was named for his paternal grandfather.[4]
  2. ^ Joyce acquired his saint's name Aloysius at his confirmation[5] in 1891.[6]
  3. ^ According to Irish artist Arthur Power, who would occasionally ride in the car with Joyce and his children. Joyce once ordered the driver to turn home when a storm broke out. When Power asked "Why are you so afraid of thunder? Your children don't mind it." Joyce answered "Ah, they have no religion."[13]; although there is some evidence that the extent of Joyce's phobias could be exaggerated.[14]
  4. ^ Ibsen did not reply.[27]
  5. ^ Joyce's dedicatory page to the play is all that remains: "To My own Soul I dedicate the first true work of my life".[31]
  6. ^ Joyce's mother was initially diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver;[47] Ellmann says that it became apparent she was actually dying of cancer.[48] This may reflect what Joyce's family came to believe,[49] but Gorman's 1939 biography of Joyce, which was edited by Joyce himself,[50] states that she died of cirrhosis,[51] as does her death certificate.[52]
  7. ^ Gorman writes: "Mary Jane Joyce was dying in the sanctity of the bosom of her Church...and her eldest son could only grieve that the two wills could not meet and mix. He was incapable of bending his knee to the powerful phantom, that once acknowledged, would devour him as it had devoured so many about him and half a civilization as well."[57]
  8. ^ Though there is substantial circumstantial evidence supporting that date,[63] there is no direct documentary evidence confirming that Joyce's and Nora's walk on the Ringsend actually occurred on this day.[64]
  9. ^ The literary critic Louis Menand states: "When people celebrate Bloomsday, that [Nora's masturbation of Joyce] is what they are celebrating."[67]
  10. ^ Stephen Hero was published after Joyce's death in 1944[72]
  11. ^ Though Joyce parodied Yeats in "Holy Office", he admired two short stories Yeats had written, "Tables of the Law" and "Adoration of the Magi". The former he memorized by heart and references to both were integrated into Joyce's "Stephen Hero".[77] Joyce also admired Yeats's 1899 play The Countess Cathleen, which he translated into Italian in 1911.[78]
  12. ^ The title Chamber Music had been suggested by Stanislaus,[83] but Joyce accepted it as a double entendre, implying both the sound of chamber music and the sound of urine falling in a chamber pot.[84]
  13. ^ According to Stanislaus, Russell and Joyce became acquainted through a common interest in theosophy, which he briefly explored after his mother's death.[85] Joyce's knowledge of theosophy appears in his later writing, particularly Finnegans Wake[86]
  14. ^ Composer Otto Luening, who knew Joyce in Trieste, described his voice as being "mellow and pleasant...a nice Irish-Italian tenor...very good for Italian operas of the 17th and 18th centuries".[89]
  15. ^ The details of what happened immediately after the contest remains unclear.[95] For example, Oliver Gogarty claims Joyce threw his medal into the Liffey.[96], but Joyce apparently gave the medal to his Aunt Josephine,[97] and it ended up being bought by the choreographer Michael Flatley at an auction in 2004.[98]
  16. ^ After less than an hour in Trieste, Joyce found himself arrested and jailed when he got into the middle of an altercation between three sailors of the Royal Navy and Austro-Hungarian police. He had to be released by the British Vice-Consul.[112]
  17. ^ It was later rumored that Joyce had been evicted from Pola when the Austrians—having discovered an espionage ring in the city—expelled all aliens, but the evidence suggests that he moved because the position in Trieste was better.[118]
  18. ^ Joyce's Triestine colleague, the writer Italo Svevo states that with the exception of some stories of Dubliners and the "songs" of Chamber Music, "All his other works down to Ulysses were born in Trieste".[122]
  19. ^ Regarding the role of Trieste on the creation of Ulysses, Svevo states "To the Irish critic [Earnest] Boyd, who asserted that Ulysses was merely the product of pre-war thought in Ireland, Valery Larbaud replied 'Yes, in so far as it came to maturity in Trieste'."[127]
  20. ^ The last short story of The Dubliners, "The Dead", had not yet been written.[136]
  21. ^ In October, Joyce wrote "I have a new sorry for Dubliners in my head. It deals with Mr. [Alfred] Hunter", the man who was picked him after he was beaten in 1904. In November, he first mentioned the title of the story as "Ulysses", and in Feb 1907, he mentioned "Ulysses" along with "The Dead" and three other stories that never appeared.[151]
  22. ^ Following Richard Ellmann's biography, later biographers state the attack was due rheumatic fever.[162] but the evidence also points to syphilis as the cause.[163] Other critics have also claimed that the evidence points to syphilis being the cause of Joyce's eye problems.[164] The physician J. B. Lyons makes a case that the cause was Reiter's syndrome,[165] though he later suggested that this occurred as an aftereffect of a venereal infection.[166]
  23. ^ Lucia was named after the patron saint of eyesight.[170]
  24. ^ It had just become part of the new National University of Ireland. And was one of three Irish University Colleges, the others were University College Galway and University College Cork.[179]
  25. ^ Eva became homesick and returned to Dublin after little more than a year,[186] but Eileen spent the rest of her life on the continent, eventually marrying a Czech bank cashier, Frantisek Schaurek.[187]
  26. ^ It was in the midst of these frustrations with Richards in 1911 that Joyce was alleged to have thrown the manuscript of the first three chapters of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man into a stove fire, only to have it rescued by Eileen.[192]
  27. ^ The literary critic Mary Colum, who was personally well-acquainted with Joyce stated reports him as saying: "Pound took me out of the gutter."[196]
  28. ^ In 1920, Joyce wrote that the Irish press reported him as the founder of Dada.[218]
  29. ^ Budgen wrote: "Joyce, if asked, what he did during the Great War, could reply: 'I wrote Ulysses.'" [239]
  30. ^ Ernest Hemingway became involved in smuggling copies of Ulysses into the United States from Canada.[268]
  31. ^ In March 1923, Joyce wrote "Yesterday I wrote two pages—the first I have since the final Yes of Ulysses. Having found a pen, with some difficulty I copied them out in a large handwriting on a double sheet of foolscap so that I could read them. Il lupo perde il pelo ma non il vizio, the Italians say. 'The wolf may lose his skin but not his vice' or 'the leopard cannot change his spots."[271]
  32. ^ Joyce met T. S. Eliot in Paris in 1923. Eliot became a strong advocate of Joyce's work, arranging publication of parts of Work in Progress, the first complete edition of Finnegans Wake with Faber and Faber and editing the first anthology of Joyce's work the year after his death.[280]
  33. ^ Joyce could still retain his sense of humor and appreciation of music during these difficult times. For example, after hearing the composer's Othmar Schoeck's Song Cycle Lebendig begraben[Buried Alive], which was based on the poems of Gottfried Keller in Zürich in 1935, he went to Schoeck's house unannounced and dressed as a tramp to introduce himself to him. He also obtained Gottfried Keller's poems and began to translate them.[290]
  34. ^ Jung also states: "It would never occur to me to class Ulysses as a product of schizophrenia...Ulysses is no more a pathological product than modern art as a whole."[294]
  35. ^ In 1988, the literary executor of the Joyce estate, Stephen J. Joyce, had all the letters written by Lucia that he received upon her death in 1982 destroyed.[296] Stephen Joyce stated in a letter to the editor of The New York Times that "Regarding the destroyed correspondence, these were all personal letters from Lucia to us. They were written many years after both Nonno and Nonna [i.e., Mr. and Mrs. Joyce] died and did not refer to them. Also destroyed were some postcards and one telegram from Samuel Beckett to Lucia. This was done at Sam's written request."[297]
  36. ^ When Joyce had to renew his passport while residing in Paris during 1935, he wrote Georgio afterwards: "Giorni fa dovevo far rinnovare il mio passaporto. L'impiegato mi disse che aveva ordinin di mandare gente come me alla legazione irlandese. Insistetti ed ottenni un altro. [A few days ago I had to have my [British] passport renewed. The clerk told me that he had ordered people like me to be sent to the Irish legation. I insisted and got another one.][315]
  37. ^ Svevo writes: "He is twice a rebel, against England and against Ireland. He hates England and would like to transform Ireland. Yet he belongs so much to England that like a great many of his Irish predecessors he will fill pages of English literary history".[321]
  38. ^ In 1904 Joyce declared to Nora, who he had just recently met: "My mind rejects the whole present social order and Christianity—home, the recognised virtues, classes of life and religious doctrines. ... Six years ago I left the Catholic church, hating it most fervently. I found it impossible for me to remain in it on account of the impulses of my nature. I made secret war upon it when I was a student and declined to accept the positions it offered me. By doing this I made myself a beggar, but I retained my pride. Now I make open war upon it by what I write and say and do."[325]
  39. ^ Stanislaus wrote: "It has become a fashion with some of my brother's critics...to represent him as a man pining for the ancient Church he had abandoned, and at a loss for moral support without the religion in which he was bred. Nothing could be further from the truth. I am convinced that there was never any crisis of belief. The vigor of life within him drove him out of the church"[326]
  40. ^ When a Catholic priest offered to perform a religious service for Joyce's burial, Nora declined, saying, "I couldn't do that to him."[327]
  41. ^ Colum states: "I have never known anyone with a mind so fundamentally Catholic in structure as Joyce's own, or one on whom the Church, its ceremonies, symbols, and theological declarations had made such an impress"[330]
  42. ^ Joyce told Stanislaus "The Mass on Good Friday seems to me a very great drama."[332]
  43. ^ Svevo writes: "What is fundamental in Joyce can be found entire in them [The Dubliners].[357]

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  378. ^ Updike has referred to Joyce as influential in a number of interviews and essays. The most recent of such references is in the foreword to The Early Stories: 1953–1975 (London: Hamish Hamilton, 2003), p. x. John Collier wrote favorably of "that city of modern prose," and added, "I was struck by the great number of magnificent passages in which words are used as they are used in poetry, and in which the emotion which is originally Other instances include an interview with Frank Gado in First Person: Conversations with Writers and their Writing (Schenectady, NY: Union College Press, 1973), p. 92, and James Plath's Conversations with John Updike (Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1994), pp. 197, 223.
  379. ^ Gallix 2007, p. 126.
  380. ^ Jones, Josh (13 August 2013). "Cormac McCarthy's Three Punctuation Rules and How They All Go Back to James Joyce". Open Culture. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  381. ^ "About Joseph Campbell". Archived from the original on 1 January 2007. Retrieved 10 December 2006., Joseph Campbell Foundation. 1 January 2007 version retrieved from the Internet archive on 9 November 2009.
  382. ^ Beebe 1972, p. 176.
  383. ^ Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia (5 February 2019). "Irish literature". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  384. ^ Julia Kristéva, La Révolution du langage poétique, Paris, Seuil, 1974.
  385. ^ Three quarks for Muster Mark! Archived 8 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Text of Finnegans Wake at Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  386. ^ "quark". Archived from the original on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2006., American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition 2000. 2 July 2007 version retrieved from the Internet archive on 9 November 2009.
  387. ^ Max 2006; Roberts 2020.
  388. ^ Killeen 2011a; Killeen 2011b.
  389. ^ Killeen 2012.
  390. ^ "Museum of Literature Ireland (MoLI)". Visit Dublin. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  391. ^ "James Joyce Tower". The Bridge (a Trinity College Dublin magazine). 2 February 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
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  393. ^ "Dublin Writers Museum". Visit Dublin. Retrieved 17 May 2021.

Sources

Books
  • Caraher, Brian G. (2009). "Irish and European politics: nationalism, socialism, empire". In McCourt, John (ed.). James Joyce in Context. Cambridge University Press. pp. 285–298. ISBN 978-0801825439. OCLC 1150093431.
  • Coolahan, John (2010). "Higher Education, 1908-84". In Hill, J. R. (ed.). A New History of Ireland Volume VII: Ireland, 1921-84. Oxford University Press. pp. 758–759. ISBN 9780199592821. OCLC 701552783.
  • Davison, Neil R. (1998). James Joyce, Ulysses, and the Construction of Jewish Identity: Culture, Biography, and 'the Jew' in Modernist Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780511581830. OCLC 939797702.
  • Ellmann, Richard (1967). Miller, Liam (ed.). Joyce and Yeats. Dolman Press Yeats Centenary Papers MCMLXV. XI. Dolmen Press. OCLC 651978436.
  • Fogarty, Anne (2014). "Forward". In Brazeau, Gladwin; Gladwin, Derek (eds.). Eco-Joyce: The Environmental Imagination of James Joyce. Cork University Press >. pp. xv–xviii. ISBN 9781782050728. OCLC 882713144.
  • Gallix, François (2007). "Author, Author by David Lodge and The Year of Henry James". In Guignery, Vanessa; Gallix, François (eds.). Pre and Post-publication Itineraries of the Contemporary Novel in English. Publibook. pp. 125–132. ISBN 9782748335101. OCLC 470721979.
  • Hughs, Eamonn (1992). "Joyce and Catholicism". In Welch, Robert (ed.). Irish Writers and Religion. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 116–137. ISBN 9780389209638. OCLC 24431101.
  • Jung, Carl Gustav (1949). "Ulysses": A monologue [photocopied typescript]. Analytical Psychology Club of New York.
  • Jung, Carl Gustav (1975) [1952]. ""Ulysses": A monologue". In Read, Herbert; Fordham, Michael; Adler, Gerhard; McGuire, William (eds.). The Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature. Bollingen Series. XX. Translated by Hull, R. F. C. Princeton University Press. pp. 117–134. ISBN 0691097739. OCLC 1245812059.
  • McCourt, John (2019). "After Ellman: The State of Joyce Biography". In Bradford, Richard (ed.). A Companion to Literary Biography. Wiley Blackwell. pp. 529–546. ISBN 9781118896297. OCLC 1060993112.
  • O'Callaghan, Katherine (2020). "The Art of Reading a Musical Novel: Literary Audiation and the Case of James Joyce". In van Hulle, Dirk; Silva, Emma-Louise; Slote, Sam (eds.). James Joyce and the Arts. Brill. ISBN 9789004426191. OCLC 1247076920.
  • Potts, Willard (1979). "August Suter". In Potts, Willard (ed.). Portraits of the Artist in Exile: Recollections of James Joyce by Europeans. University of Washington Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 0295956143. OCLC 1256510754.}
  • Riquelme, John Paul (1983). Teller and Tale in Joyce's Fictions: Oscillating Perspectives. Johns Hopkins University. ISBN 9780801828546. OCLC 803667971.
  • Shockley, Alan (2009). "Playing the Square Circle: Musical Form and Polyphony in the Wake". In Friedman, Alan W.; Rossman, Charles (eds.). De-Familiarizing Readings: Essays from the Austin Joyce Conference. European Joyce Studies. 18. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi. pp. 101–102. ISBN 9789042025707. OCLC 907184947.
Journal articles
Online sources
Primary sources
  • Gogarty, Oliver St. John (1990) [1948]. "James Joyce: A Portrait of the Artist". In Mikhail, E. H. (ed.). James Joyce: Interviews and Recollections. Palgrave MacMillian. pp. 21–31. ISBN 9781349094226. OCLC 1004381330.
  • Gorman, Herbert Sherman (1948) [1939]. James Joyce. Rinehart. OCLC 1035888158. Gorman's biography was substantially edited by Joyce; see Nadel, 1991 and Witemeyer, 1995 cited above.
  • Joyce, James (1901). "The Day of the Rabblement". Two essays: "A Forgotten Aspect of the University Question" by F. J. C. Skeffington and "The Day of the Rabblement by James A. Joyce. Gerrard Brothers. OCLC 1158075403. Free to read
  • Joyce, Stanislaus (1950). Recollections of James Joyce. James Joyce Society. OCLC 56703249.
  • Joyce Schaurek, Eileen (1990) [1963]. "Pappy never spoke of Jim's books". In Mikhail, E. H. (ed.). James Joyce: Interviews and Recollections. Palgrave MacMillian. pp. 60–68. ISBN 9781349094226. OCLC 1004381330.
Literary works

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Joyce Papers, National Library of Ireland

Electronic editions

Resources