Philippe Emmanuel, Duke of Mercœur
|Philippe Emmanuel, Duke of Mercœur|
Philippe Emmanuel, Duke of Mercœur (1558-1602)
9 September 1558|
|Died||19 February 1602
|Noble family||House of Lorraine|
|Spouse(s)||Marie de Luxembourg|
|Father||Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur|
|Mother||Jeanne de Savoie-Nemours|
Philippe Emmanuel de Lorraine, Duke of Mercœur (9 September 1558, Nomeny, Meurthe-et-Moselle – 19 February 1602, Nürnberg), the eldest surviving son of Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur and Jeanne de Savoie-Nemours, was a French soldier and prominent member of the Catholic League.
He was made a knight of the Order of Saint Esprit in 1578. His wife was Marie de Luxemburg, the Duchess of Penthièvre.
Rebellion in Brittany
In 1582 he was made governor of Brittany by Henry III of France, who had married his half-sister. In 1588 Mercœur put himself at the head of the League in Brittany, and had himself proclaimed protector of the Roman Catholic Church in the province.
His wife's family, the House of Penthièvre, were descendants of the House of Dreux as Dukes of Brittany. The House of Penthièvre had lost the dukedom of Brittany to the House of Montfort in the Breton War of Succession in the 14th century. They had subsequently attempted to overthrow the Montfortist Dukes, with no success. Invoking the alleged hereditary rights of his wife, Mercœur endeavoured to make himself independent in that province, and organized a government at Nantes, calling his son "prince and duke of Brittany".
He formed an alliance with Spain and continued to press for his independence from France when Henry IV became King of France. Henry IV of France sent a force against him led by the duc de Montpensier. With the aid of the Spaniards he defeated the French at the Battle of Craon in 1592. However, the royal troops were reinforced by English contingents and soon recovered the advantage. The king marched against Mercœur in person, and received his submission at Angers on 20 March 1598.
Henry IV assured his control of Brittany through the marriage of his illegitimate son to Mercœur's daughter Francoise.
He had two children with Marie:
- Philippe Louis de Lorraine (21 May 1589 – 21 December 1590)
- Françoise de Lorraine, Duchesse de Mercœur et de Penthièvre (November 1592 – 8 September 1669, Paris)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mercœur, Philippe Emmanuel de Lorraine". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 154.
St François de Sales. Oraison funèbre de Philippe-Emmanuel de Lorraine, duc de Mercœur et de Penthièvre. Introduction de Pierre-Olivier Combelles. Editions Saint-Rémi (Cadillac), 2006.
Philippe Emmanuel, Duke of MercœurBorn: September 9 1558 Died: February 19, 1602
|Duke of Mercœur
|Marquis of Nomeny
Marie suo jure
Marie de Luxemburg, Duchess of Penthièvre
|Duc de Penthièvre jure uxoris
with Marie de Luxemburg, duchesse de Penthièvre