Philophthalmus lacrimosus

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Philophthalmus lacrimosus
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Rhabditophora
Order: Plagiorchiida
Family: Philophthalmidae
Genus: Philophthalmus
P. lacrimosus
Binomial name
Philophthalmus lacrimosus
Braun, 1902[1]

Philophthalmus lacrimosus is a species of trematodes in the family Philophthalmidae.

Life cycle[edit]

Philophthalmus lacrimosus, as adults, parasitize the eyes of birds (definitive host).[2] Eggs containing miracidia hatch in the water, miracidia penetrate snails[which?] (intermediate hosts) and develop into redia and cercariae.[2] When the metacercariae encyst on surfaces of food for birds the infection of a new definitive host can take place by entering the eye or by oral intake.[2]

Human infections[edit]

Human cases of philophthalmosis have been reported in Yugoslavia, Israel, Asia (Thailand, Sri Lanka, Japan) and the Americas, specifically in Mexico and the United States.[2]


This article incorporates CC-BY-2.0 text from the reference[2]

  1. ^ Braun, Maximilian (1902). "Fascioliden der Vögel". Zoologische Jahrbücher (in German). 16: 1–162. ISSN 0323-7087.
  2. ^ a b c d e Otranto, D; Eberhard, ML (23 March 2011). "Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye". Parasites & Vectors. 4: 41. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-41. PMC 3071329. PMID 21429191.

External links[edit]