Prasinococcus have a firm cell wall lacking scales and also lack flagella. The mitochondrial lobe and chloroplast outer membrane both protrude into the pyrenoid matrix which is considered characteristic of the genus. The cell wall has a protruding circular collar which is surrounded by holes which penetrate the cell wall. Its method of asexual reproduction is also considered characteristic - after cell division one daughter cell remains within the original cell wall while the other is extruded.
The pigments of Prasinococcus include chlorophylls a and b, prasinoxanthin, Mg 2, 4-diviriylphaeoporphyrin a5 monomethyl ester (Mg 2, 4-D) and 5, 6-epoxy-3, 3′-dihydroxy-5, 6, 7′, 8′-tetrahydro-β-ε-caroten-11′ and 19-olide (uriolide).
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