Prescription monitoring program

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In the United States, prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) or prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are state-run programs which collect and distribute data about the prescription and dispensation of federally controlled substances and, as the individual states deem appropriate, other potentially addictive or abusable prescription drugs. PMPs help to prevent adverse drug-related events through opioid overdoses, drug diversion, and substance abuse by decreasing the amount and/or frequency of opioid prescribing.[1]

Most US health care workers support PMPs, which intend to assist physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, dentists and other prescribers, the pharmacists, chemists and support staff of dispensing establishments, as well as law-enforcement agencies. The collaboration supports the legitimate medical use of controlled substances while limiting their abuse and diversion. Pharmacies dispensing controlled substances and prescribers are typically required to register with their respective state PMPs and (for pharmacies and providers who dispense controlled substances from their offices) to report the dispensation of such prescriptions to an electronic online database. Although forty-nine states have implemented PDMPs, little is known about these programs and their overall effectiveness. [2]

Definition[edit]

In the United States, prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) or prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are state-run programs which collect and distribute data about the prescription and dispensation of federally controlled substances and, as the individual states deem appropriate, other potentially addictive or abusable prescription drugs. PMPs help to prevent adverse drug events through opioid overdoses, drug diversion, and substance abuse by decreasing the amount and/or frequency of opioid prescribing.[3] A 2017 study found that "US states that have more robust prescription drug monitoring programs have fewer prescription opioid overdose deaths than states with weaker PMPs."[4]

Goal[edit]

Most health care workers support PMPs[5] which intend to assist physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, dentists and other prescribers, the pharmacists, chemists and support staff of dispensing establishments, as well as law-enforcement agencies. The collaboration supports the legitimate medical use of controlled substances while limiting their abuse and diversion.[citation needed] Pharmacies dispensing controlled substances and prescribers typically must register with their respective state PMPs and (for pharmacies and providers who dispense controlled substances from their offices) report the dispensation to an electronic online database. Some pharmacy software can submit these reports automatically to multiple states.[citation needed]

List of programs by state[edit]

State Name State Code Format Method Reporting Agency Schedules Monitored Documentation State Frequency Data Retention
Alaska AK ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 Source Monthly 2 Source
Alabama AL ASAP 2007 v4.0 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 5 Source Daily ?
Arkansas AR ASAP 2011 v4.2 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 ? ? Weekly ?
Arizona AZ ASAP 2005 v3.0 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 4 + Carisoprodol Source Daily Adult 6 / Minor 3 Source
California CA ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Atlantic Associates, Inc Phone: 800.539.3370 2 - 4 Source Weekly 3 Source
Colorado CO ASAP 2012 v4.2 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 5 Source Bi-Weekly ?
Connecticut CT ASAP 4.2 FTPs Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 Source Bi-Weekly ?
District of Columbia DC ASAP 4.2 ? ? ? ? ? ?
Delaware DE ASAP 2011 v4.2 sFTP Health Information Design Phone 334.502.3262 2 - 5 Source Daily ?
Florida FL ASAP 2009 v4.2 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 4 Source Weekly ?
Georgia GA ASAP 2011 V4.2 ? Appriss:855-525-4767 ? ? ? 1 Source
Hawaii HI ASAP 2009 v4.2 Web Portal Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 + Carisoprodol Source Weekly https://hipdmpreporting.hidinc.com/
Idaho ID ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 Source Weekly ?
Illinois IL ASAP 2007 v4.0 sFTP Atlantic Associates, Inc Phone: 800.539.3370 2 - 5 Source Weekly 2 Source
Indiana IN ASAP 2007 v4.2 FTPs INSPECT Phone: 317.234.4458 Phone:866.683.2476 2 - 5 + Carisoprodol (SOMA) [1] Daily ?
Iowa IA ASAP v4.1 FTPs Optimum Technology, Inc Phone: 866.683.2476 2 - 4 Source BWeekly 4 Source
Kansas KS ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 4 + Drugs of Concern Source Daily ?
Kentucky KY ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 5 + Carisoprodol, Tramadol Source Daily 5 Source
Louisiana LA ASAP 4.2 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 + Tramadol, Butalibtal, Carisoprodol, Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, PPA Source Weekly ?
Massachusetts MA ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 Source Weekly ?
Maryland MD ASAP 2011 V4.2 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 4 Source Weekly ?
Maine ME ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 4 Source Bi-Weekly 6 Source
Michigan MI ASAP 2009 v4.1 Web Portal Michigan Automated Prescription System (MAPS) Source 2 - 5 Source Bi-Weekly ?
Minnesota MN ASAP 2007 v4.0 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 4 + Codeine containing cough syrups that are schedule 5 federally are schedule 3 in MN; Human growth hormones are schedule 3 in MN. Source Daily 1 Source
Missouri MO ASAP 4.2 ? ? ? ? ? 3 Source
Mississippi MS ASAP 2005 v3.0 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 + Butalbital, Carisoprodol, Soma, Tramadol Powder, Ultracet, Ultram ER, Ryzolt ER. [2] Weekly ?
Montana MT ASAP 4.2 sFTP Montana Prescription Drug Registry [3] ? ? Weekly ?
North Carolina NC ASAP 4.2 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 5 Source Weekly 6 Source
North Dakota ND ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 5 + Tramadol, Carisoprodol Source Daily ?
Nebraska NE ASAP 4.2 ? ? ? ? ? ?
New Hampshire NH ASAP 4.2 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 + Tramadol, Carisoprodol nhpdmpreporting.hidinc.com Daily ?
New Jersey NJ ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 and HCG [4] Weekly ?
New Mexico NM ASAP 2009 v4.1 Web Portal Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 4 + Butalbital (Fioricet), Carisoprodol (Soma), Dezocine (Dalgan), Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), Nalbuphine (Nubain), Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) Source Weekly ?
Nevada NV ASAP 2005 v3.0 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 4 + Carisoprodol Source Weekly ?
New York NY ASAP 2007 v4.0 Web Portal New York (DOH & BNDD) Phone: 866.811.7957 2 - 5 + Chorionic Gonadotropin, HCG Source Daily 5 Source
Ohio OH ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Ohio Automated Rx Reporting System (OARRS) Phone: 614.466.4143 2 - 5 + Carisoprodol, Tramadol Source Daily 2 Source
Oklahoma OK ASAP 2009 v4.1 Web Service Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 + Tramadol Source Within 5 Minutes ?
Oregon OR ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 4 ? Weekly 3 Source
Pennsylvania PA ASAP 2007 v4.0 FTPs Appriss:855-525-4767 2 + ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, PSE ? Monthly ?
Rhode Island RI ASAP 4.2 Web Portal Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) Phone: 401.222.2840 2 - 3 Source Monthly ?
South Carolina SC ASAP 4.2 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 4 Source Monthly ?
South Dakota SD ASAP 2009 v4.1 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 4 ? Weekly ?
Tennessee TN ASAP 2009 v4.1 FTPs Optimum Technology, Inc Phone: 866.683.2476 2 - 5 Source Bi-Weekly ?
Texas TX ASAP 2009 v4.1 FTPs Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 5 + Carisoprodol Source Bi-Weekly 1 Source
Utah UT ASAP 4.2 Web Portal Utah Controlled Substance Database Program Phone: 801.530.6232 2 - 5 + butalbital w/acetaminophen Source Daily UCA 58-37f
Virginia VA ASAP 2009 v4.1 FTPs Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 4 Source Bi-Weekly ?
Vermont VT ASAP 2005 v3.0 sFTP Appriss:855-525-4767 2 - 4 ? Weekly 6 Source
Washington WA ASAP 2011 v4.2 sFTP Health Information Design Phone: 334.502.3262 2 - 5 Source Weekly ?
Wisconsin WI ASAP 2011 v4.2 ? ? 2-5 + Tramadol ? ? ?
West Virginia WV ASAP 4.2 Web Portal West Virginia Board of Pharmacy 2 -4 Source ? ?
Wyoming WY ASAP 4.2 sFTP Atlantic Associates, Inc. Phone: 800.539.3370 2 - 4 + Tramadol, Carisoprodol Source Weekly ?

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sacco, Lisa N.; Duff, Johnathan H.; Sarata, Amanda K. (May 24, 2018). Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  2. ^ Rutkow, Lainie; Smith, Katherine C.; Lai, Alden Yuanhong; Vernick, Jon S.; Davis, Corey S.; Alexander, G. Caleb. "Prescription drug monitoring program design and function: A qualitative analysis". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 180: 395–400. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.08.040.
  3. ^ Rutkow L; Chang H; Daubresse M; et al. (2015). "EFfect of Florida's prescription drug monitoring program and pill mill laws on opioid prescribing and use". JAMA Internal Medicine. 175 (10): 1642–1649. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.3931. ISSN 2168-6106. PMID 26280092.
  4. ^ "Do more robust prescription drug monitoring programs reduce prescription opioid overdose?".
  5. ^ Hwang, Catherine S.; Turner, Lydia W.; Kruszewski, Stefan P.; Kolodny, Andrew; Alexander, G. Caleb (2016). "Primary Care Physicians' Knowledge And Attitudes Regarding Prescription Opioid Abuse and Diversion". The Clinical Journal of Pain. 32 (4): 279–284. doi:10.1097/ajp.0000000000000268.

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