President's Committee on Civil Rights
The President's Committee on Civil Rights was a United States Presidential Commission established by President Harry Truman in 1946. The committee was created by Executive Order 9808 on December 5, 1946 and instructed to investigate the status of civil rights in the country and propose measures to strengthen and protect them. After the committee submitted a report of its findings to President Truman, it disbanded in December 1947.
The committee was charged with examining the condition of civil rights in the United States, producing a written report of their findings, and submitting recommendations on improving civil rights in the United States. In December 1947, the committee produced a 178 page report entitled To Secure These Rights: The Report of the President’s Committee on Civil Rights. In the report, it proposed to establish a permanent Civil Rights Commission, Joint Congressional Committee on Civil Rights, and a Civil Rights Division in the Department of Justice; to develop federal protection from lynching; a permanent fair employment practice commission; to abolish poll taxes; and urged other measures. Furthermore, the report raised the distinct possibility that the UN Charter from 1945 could also be used as a source of law to fight persistent racial discrimination in the US.
On July 26, 1948, President Truman advanced the recommendations of the report by signing executive orders 9980 and 9981. Executive Order 9980 ordered the desegregation of the federal work force and Executive Order 9981 ordered the desegregation of the armed services. He also sent a special message to Congress on February 2, 1948 to implement the recommendations of the President’s Committee on Civil Rights.
The committee was composed of 15 members:
- Charles Edward Wilson (Chairman)
- Sadie T. Alexander
- James B. Carey
- John Sloan Dickey
- Morris Ernst
- Rabbi Roland B. Gittelsohn
- Dr. Frank Porter Graham
- Reverend Francis J. Haas
- Charles Luckman
- Francis P. Matthews
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr.
- Reverend Henry Knox Sherrill
- Boris Shishkin
- Dorothy Rogers Tilly
- Channing Heggie Tobias
- President's Committee on Civil Rights. To Secure These Rights: The Report of the President's Committee on Civil Rights. Washington: GPO, 1947.
- Christopher N.J.Roberts. "William H. Fitzpatrick's Editorials on Human Rights (1949)". Quellen zur Geschichte der Menschenrechte. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
- ^ "Executive Order 9808, Establishing the President's Committee on Civil Rights, Harry S Truman" from Federal Register, retrieved 18 February 2015. Full text of the order at The American Presidency Project, retrieved 18 February 2015.
- ^ "Agency History, Records of the President's Committee on Civil Rights Record Group 220" from the Truman Presidential Museum & Library, retrieved January 23, 2006
- ^ President's Committee on Civil Rights. To Secure These Rights (2004).
- ^ "Executive Order 9980, Regulations Governing Fair Employment Practices Within the Federal Establishment," and "Executive Order 9981, Establishing the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, Harry S Truman" from Federal Register, retrieved January 23, 2006. For more details on the desegregation of the armed forces see, "Truman Library: Desegregation of the Armed Forces Online Research File" from the Truman Presidential Museum & Library, retrieved May 4, 2010
- ^ "Special Message to the Congress on Civil Rights, Public Papers of the Presidents, Harry S. Truman, 1945-1953" on February 2, 1948, from the Truman Presidential Museum & Library, retrieved January 21, 2006
- Berman, William C. (1970). The Politics of Civil Rights in the Truman Administration (PDF). Ohio State University Press. ISBN 9780814201428.
- Gardner, Michael R. (2002). Harry Truman and Civil Rights: Moral Courage and Political Risks. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 9780809388967.
- Hamby, Alonzo L. (1973). Beyond the New Deal: Harry S. Truman and American Liberalism. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231083447.
- McCoy, Donald R.; Ruetten, Richard T. (1973). Quest and Response: Minority Rights and the Truman Administration. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 9780700600991.
- Vaughan, Philip H. (1976). The Truman Administration's Legacy for Black America. Mojave Books. ISBN 9780878810475.
- To Secure These Rights: The Report of the President’s Committee on Civil Rights Full text of document available from the Truman Presidential Museum & Library
- Christopher N.J. Roberts: William H. Fitzpatrick’s Editorials on Human Rights (1949), published by Arbeitskreis Menschenrechte im 20. Jahrhundert, published at "Quellen zur Geschichte der Menschenrechte"