A prisoner exchange or prisoner swap is a deal between opposing sides in a conflict to release prisoners: prisoners of war, spies, hostages, etc. Sometimes, dead bodies are involved in an exchange.
Under the Geneva Conventions, prisoners who cannot contribute to the war effort because of illness or disability are entitled to be repatriated to their home country. That is regardless of number of prisoners so affected; the detaining power cannot refuse a genuine request.
Under the Geneva Convention (1929), this is covered by Articles 68 to 74, and the annex. One of the largest exchange programmes was run by the International Red Cross during World War II under these terms. Under the Third Geneva Convention of 1949, that is covered by Articles 109 to 117.
The Second World War in Yugoslavia saw a brutal struggle between the armed forces of the Third Reich and the communist-led Partisans. Despite that, the two sides negotiated prisoner exchanges virtually from the beginning of the war. Under extraordinary circumstances, these early contacts evolved into a formal exchange agreement, centered on the creation of a neutral zone, possibly the only such in occupied Europe, where prisoners were regularly swapped until late April 1945, saving several thousand lives.
On 25 April 2019, Zarif said that he was proposed Iran's prisoner swap proposal or prisoner exchange to United States government in October 2018. This proposal has remained without any answer from U.S. side until today, Zarif said to CBS News. Zarif, spoke about prisoner exchange between Iran and U.S. during an interview with CBS News agency, and added that the U.S. government must prove that its seriousness before any negotiations.
- Arab–Byzantine prisoner exchanges
- List of Israeli prisoner exchanges
- Humanitarian exchange
- Iran's 2018 prisoner swap proposal to the United States
- "Yielding Prisoners, Israel Receives 2 Dead Soldiers". New York Times. 17 July 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Wikisource. . 1949 – via
- "Former POW pays tribute to the French, Red Cross". New Jersey Jewish News. 18 November 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Gaj Trifković, "Making Deals with the Enemy: Partisan-German Contacts and Prisoner Exchanges in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945" in: Global War Studies 01/2013; 10(2):6–37.
- Nichols, Michelle; Wroughton, Lesley (24 April 2019). "Iran's Zarif warns U.S. of 'consequences' over oil sanctions, offer prisoner swap". reuters.com. Reuters. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- "Iran's FM Zarif Says US Must 'Prove It's Serious' About Prisoner Swap Talks". sputniknews.com. Sputnik. 28 April 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- Gladstone, Rick (24 April 2019). "Iran's Foreign Minister Proposes Prisoner Exchange With U.S." nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- "Iran Made No Offer, Responded to US Call for Prisoner Swap: Zarif". tasnimnews.com. Tasnim News. 28 April 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2019.