Propyl gallate

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Propyl gallate
Structural formula of propyl gallate
Space-filling model of the propyl gallate molecule
IUPAC name
Propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
Other names
Gallic acid, propyl ester
n-Propyl gallate
121-79-9 YesY
ChemSpider 4778 YesY
EC Number 204-498-2
Jmol interactive 3D Image
MeSH Propyl+Gallate
PubChem 4947
Molar mass 212.20 g/mol
Appearance White crystalline powder
Melting point 150 °C (302 °F; 423 K)
Boiling point Decomposes
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Propyl gallate, or propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate is an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and propanol. Since 1948, this antioxidant has been added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation.[1] As a food additive, it is used under the E number E310.


Propyl gallate is an antioxidant. It protects against oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and oxygen free radicals.


Propyl gallate is used to protect oils and fats in products from oxidation; it is used in foods, cosmetics, hair products, adhesives, and lubricants.

It is used as a triplet state quencher and an antioxidant in fluorescence microscopy.[2]

Biological effects[edit]

A 2009 study found that propyl gallate acts as an estrogen antagonist.[3]


  1. ^ "Final Report on the Amended Safety Assessment of Propyl Gallate". International Journal of Toxicology 26 (suppl. 3): 89–118. 2007. doi:10.1080/10915810701663176. ISSN 1091-5818. PMID 18080874. 
  2. ^ Jerker Widengren, Andriy Chmyrov, Christian Eggeling, Per-Åke Löfdahl, and Claus A. M. Seidel (2007). "Strategies to Improve Photostabilities in Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Spectroscopy". The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 111 (3): 429–440. doi:10.1021/jp0646325. PMID 17228891. 
  3. ^ Alessio Amadasi, Andrea Mozzarelli, Clara Meda, Adriana Maggi and Pietro Cozzini (2009). "Identification of Xenoestrogens in Food Additives by an Integrated in Silico and in Vitro Approach". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 22 (1): 52–63. doi:10.1021/tx800048m. PMC 2758355. PMID 19063592.