Propyl gallate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Propyl gallate
Structural formula of propyl gallate
Space-filling model of the propyl gallate molecule
Names
IUPAC name
Propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
Other names
Gallic acid, propyl ester
n-Propyl gallate
E310
Identifiers
121-79-9 YesY
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChEMBL ChEMBL7983 YesY
ChemSpider 4778 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.004.090
EC Number 204-498-2
E number E310 (antioxidants, ...)
MeSH Propyl+Gallate
PubChem 4947
UNII 8D4SNN7V92 YesY
Properties
C10H12O5
Molar mass 212.20 g/mol
Appearance White crystalline powder
Melting point 150 °C (302 °F; 423 K)
Boiling point Decomposes
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Propyl gallate, or propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate is an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and propanol. Since 1948, this antioxidant has been added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation.[1] As a food additive, it is used under the E number E310.

Description[edit]

Propyl gallate is an antioxidant. It protects against oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and oxygen free radicals.

Uses[edit]

Propyl gallate is used to protect oils and fats in products from oxidation; it is used in foods, cosmetics, hair products, adhesives, and lubricants.

It is used as a triplet state quencher and an antioxidant in fluorescence microscopy.[2]

Biological effects[edit]

A 1993 study in rodents found a correlation between ingestion of propyl gallate and carcinogenesis.[3]

A 2009 study found that propyl gallate acts as an estrogen antagonist.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Final Report on the Amended Safety Assessment of Propyl Gallate". International Journal of Toxicology. 26 (suppl. 3): 89–118. 2007. doi:10.1080/10915810701663176. ISSN 1091-5818. PMID 18080874. 
  2. ^ Jerker Widengren; Andriy Chmyrov; Christian Eggeling; Per-Åke Löfdahl & Claus A. M. Seidel (2007). "Strategies to Improve Photostabilities in Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Spectroscopy". The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 111 (3): 429–440. doi:10.1021/jp0646325. PMID 17228891. 
  3. ^ Hirose, Masao, et al. "Modification of carcinogenesis by α-tocopherol, t-butylhydro-quinone, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene in a rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model." Carcinogenesis 14.11 (1993): 2359-2364.
  4. ^ Alessio Amadasi; Andrea Mozzarelli; Clara Meda; Adriana Maggi; Pietro Cozzini (2009). "Identification of Xenoestrogens in Food Additives by an Integrated in Silico and in Vitro Approach". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 22 (1): 52–63. doi:10.1021/tx800048m. PMC 2758355Freely accessible. PMID 19063592.