Pseudohallucination

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A pseudohallucination (from Ancient Greek: ψευδής (pseudḗs) "false, lying" + "hallucination") is an involuntary sensory experience vivid enough to be regarded as a hallucination, but considered by the person as subjective and unreal, unlike "true" hallucinations, which are considered real by the mental patients.[1] Unlike normal hallucinations, which occurs when one sees, hears, smells, tastes or feels something that is not there, with a compelling feeling or thought that it is real, pseudohallucinations are recognised by the person as unreal. In other words, it is a hallucination that is recognized as a hallucination, as opposed to a "normal" hallucination which would be perceived as real.

The term 'pseudohallucination' appears to have been introduced by Friedrich Wilhelm Hagen.[2] Hagen published his 1868 book "Zur Theorie der Halluzination," to define them as "illusions or sensory errors".[2]

The term 'pseudohallucination' was then further explored by the Russian psychiatrist Victor Kandinsky (1849–1889).[2] In his work "On Pseudohallucinations" (Russian: "О псевдогаллюцинациях" [o psevdogalljucinacijah]), he described his psychotic experience defining pseudohallucinations as "subjective perceptions similar to hallucinations, with respect to its character and vividness, but that differ from those because these do not have objective reality".[3][2]

The term is not widely used in the psychiatric and medical fields, as it is considered ambiguous;[4] the term nonpsychotic hallucination is preferred.[5] Pseudohallucinations, then, are more likely to happen with a hallucinogenic drug. But "the current understanding of pseudohallucinations is mostly based on the work of Karl Jaspers".[6]

A further distinction is sometimes made between pseudohallucinations and parahallucinations, the latter being a result of damage to the peripheral nervous system.[7]

They are considered a possible symptom of conversion disorder in DSM-IV (2000)[8]. In DSM-5 (2013), this definition has been removed.[2] Also, pseudohallucinations can occur in people with visual/hearing loss, with the typical such type being Charles Bonnet syndrome.[citation needed]

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  1. ^ Lavretsky, H. (1998). "The Russian Concept of Schizophrenia: A Review of the Literature". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 24 (4): 537–557. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a033348. ISSN 0586-7614.
  2. ^ a b c d e Telles-Correia, Diogo; Moreira, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, João S. (2015). "Hallucinations and related concepts—their conceptual background". Frontiers in Psychology. 6. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00991. ISSN 1664-1078.
  3. ^ Kandinsky, V. (1885). Kritische und klinische Betrachtungen im Gebiete der Sinnestäuschungen. Berlin: Verlag von Friedlander and Sohn. p. 134
  4. ^ Berrios, G. E.; Dening, T. R. (2009). "Pseudohallucinations: A conceptual history". Psychological Medicine. 26 (4): 753–63. doi:10.1017/S0033291700037776. PMID 8817710.
  5. ^ van der Zwaard, Roy; Polak, Machiel A. (2001). "Pseudohallucinations: A pseudoconcept? A review of the validity of the concept, related to associate symptomatology". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 42 (1): 42–50. doi:10.1053/comp.2001.19752. PMID 11154715.
  6. ^ Sanati, Abdi (2012). "Pseudohallucinations: a critical review" (PDF). Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences. 5 (2): 42–47.
  7. ^ El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Walker, Kristin L. (2010). "Hallucinations, pseudohallucinations, and parahallucinations". Psychiatry. 73 (1): 34–42. doi:10.1521/psyc.2010.73.1.34. PMID 20235616.
  8. ^ First, Michael B.; Frances, Allen; Pincus, Harold Alan (2002). DSM-IV-TR Handbook of Differential Diagnosis. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 64.

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