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The quintal or centner is a historical unit of mass in many countries which is usually defined as 100 base units, such as pounds or kilograms. It is a traditional unit of weight in France, Portugal, and Spain and their former colonies. It is commonly used for grain prices in wholesale markets in India, where 1 quintal = 100 kg.
Languages drawing its cognate name for the weight from latin languages include French, Portuguese and Spanish quintal, Italian quintale, Esperanto kvintalo, Polish kwintal. Languages taking their cognates from Germanicized centner include German Zentner, Lithuanian centneris, Swedish centner, Polish cetnar, Russian центнер (tsentner), Ukrainian це́нтнер (tséntner), Estonian tsentner and Spanish centena.
Pound-based vs. kilogram-based
The concept has resulted in two different series of masses: Those based on the local pound (which after metrication was considered equivalent to half a kilogram), and those uprated to being based on the kilogram.
The German Zentner is pound-based, and thus since metrication is defined as 50 kg, whereas the Austrian and Swiss Zentner since metrication has been re-defined as 100 kg. In Germany a measure of 100 kg is named a Doppelzentner.
In English both terms quintal and centner were once alternative names for the hundredweight and thus defined either as 100 lb (exactly 45.359237 kg) or as 112 lb (about 50.84 kg). Also, in the Dominican Republic it is about 125 lb. The German Zentner was introduced to the English language via Hanseatic trade as a measure of the weight of certain crops including hops for beer production.
In France, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Indonesia and in India, it is still in daily use by farmers. In Brazil and other South American countries, it is used under its alternative spelling of "kintal". It is also used in some African countries including Angola.
- Rowlett, Russ (2018). "How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement". ibiblio. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- Quintal - Merriam Webster Dictionary. Merriam Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Real Academia Española's definition of quintal
- Act of July 28, 1866, codified in 15 U.S.C. §205
- "Metric System of Measurement: Interpretation of the International System of Units for the United States", Federal Register notice of July 28, 1998, 63 F.R. 40333 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 30, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "The use of Quintal for weight measurements". Sizes: the online quantinary. Retrieved 25 July 2017.