Ram languages

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central Sandaun Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationSepik
  • Ram

The Ram languages are a small group of 3 languages spoken in Sandaun Province, Papua New Guinea: Karawa, Pouye (Bouye) and Awtuw. They are spoken directly to the northeast of the Yellow River languages and directly to the south of the Wapei languages, both of which are also Sepik groups. Ram is the word for 'man' in the languages that make up this group.

They are generally classified among the Sepik languages of northern Papua New Guinea.

Awtuw is the best documented Ram language.


The pronouns Ross reconstructs for proto-Ram are:[2]

I *wan we two (*na-n) we *na-m
thou *yɨ-n you two (*yɨ-n/*a-n) you *yɨ-m/*a-m
he *ra (*atə-) they two (*ra-p, *atə-) they (*ra-m, *atə-m)
she (*ta-i)


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ram". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Ross (2005)
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.