# Rational singularity

In mathematics, more particularly in the field of algebraic geometry, a scheme ${\displaystyle X}$ has rational singularities, if it is normal, of finite type over a field of characteristic zero, and there exists a proper birational map

${\displaystyle f\colon Y\rightarrow X}$

from a regular scheme ${\displaystyle Y}$ such that the higher direct images of ${\displaystyle f_{*}}$ applied to ${\displaystyle {\mathcal {O}}_{Y}}$ are trivial. That is,

${\displaystyle R^{i}f_{*}{\mathcal {O}}_{Y}=0}$ for ${\displaystyle i>0}$.

If there is one such resolution, then it follows that all resolutions share this property, since any two resolutions of singularities can be dominated by a third.

For surfaces, rational singularities were defined by (Artin 1966).

## Formulations

Alternately, one can say that ${\displaystyle X}$ has rational singularities if and only if the natural map in the derived category

${\displaystyle {\mathcal {O}}_{X}\rightarrow Rf_{*}{\mathcal {O}}_{Y}}$

is a quasi-isomorphism. Notice that this includes the statement that ${\displaystyle {\mathcal {O}}_{X}\simeq f_{*}{\mathcal {O}}_{Y}}$ and hence the assumption that ${\displaystyle X}$ is normal.

There are related notions in positive and mixed characteristic of

and

Rational singularities are in particular Cohen-Macaulay, normal and Du Bois. They need not be Gorenstein or even Q-Gorenstein.

Log terminal singularities are rational, (Kollár, Mori, 1998, Theorem 5.22.)

## Examples

An example of a rational singularity is the singular point of the quadric cone

${\displaystyle x^{2}+y^{2}+z^{2}=0.\,}$

(Artin 1966) showed that the rational double points of a algebraic surfaces are the Du Val singularities.