Elixir (programming language)

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Elixir
elixir programming language
Paradigmmulti-paradigm: functional, concurrent, distributed, process-oriented
First appeared2011; 8 years ago (2011)
Stable release
1.9.1 / 18 July 2019; 37 days ago (2019-07-18)[1]
Typing disciplinedynamic, strong, duck
PlatformErlang
LicenseApache License 2.0[2]
Filename extensions.ex, .exs
Websiteelixir-lang.org
Influenced by
Clojure, Erlang, Ruby
Influenced
LFE

Elixir is a functional, concurrent, general-purpose programming language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine (BEAM).[3] Elixir builds on top of Erlang and shares the same abstractions for building distributed, fault-tolerant applications. Elixir also provides productive tooling and an extensible design. The latter is supported by compile-time metaprogramming with macros and polymorphism via protocols.[4]

Elixir is used by companies such as PagerDuty[5], Discord[6], E-MetroTel[7], Pinterest[8], Moz[9], Bleacher Report[10], The Outline[11], Inverse[12] and Divvy[13], and for building embedded systems.[14][15] The community organizes yearly events in the United States,[16] Europe[17] and Japan[18] as well as minor local events and conferences.[19][20]

History[edit]

José Valim is the creator of the Elixir programming language, a research and development project of Plataformatec. His goals were to enable higher extensibility and productivity in the Erlang VM while keeping compatibility with Erlang's ecosystem.[21][22]

On July 12, 2018, Honeypot released a mini-documentary on Elixir.[23]

Versioning[edit]

Elixir follows Semantic Versioning and has only 1 major version with no plans for a second. Each of the minor versions supports a specific range of Erlang/OTP versions.[24]

Features[edit]

Examples[edit]

The following examples can be run in an iex shell or saved in a file and run from the command line by typing elixir <filename>.

Classic Hello world example:

iex> IO.puts("Hello World!")
Hello World!

Comprehensions

iex> for n <- [1,2,3,4,5], rem(n, 2) == 1, do: n*n
[1, 9, 25]

Pattern Matching (destructuring)

iex> [1, a] = [1, 2]
iex> a
2

iex> {:ok, [hello: a]} = {:ok, [hello: "world"]}
iex> a
"world"

Pattern Matching (multiple clauses)

iex> case File.read("path/to/file") do
iex>   {:ok, contents} -> IO.puts("found file: #{contents}")
iex>   {:error, reason} -> IO.puts("missing file: #{reason}")
iex> end

Pipe Operator

iex> "1" |> String.to_integer() |> Kernel.*(2)
2

Modules

defmodule Fun do
  def fib(0), do: 0
  def fib(1), do: 1
  def fib(n), do: fib(n-2) + fib(n-1)  
end

Sequentially spawning a thousand processes

for num <- 1..1000, do: spawn fn -> IO.puts("#{num * 2}") end

Asynchronously performing a task

task = Task.async fn -> perform_complex_action() end
other_time_consuming_action()
Task.await task

Noteworthy Elixir projects[edit]

  • Mix is a build automation tool that provides tasks for creating, compiling, and testing Elixir projects, managing its dependencies, and more.[28]
  • Phoenix is a web development framework written in Elixir which implements the server-side Model View Controller (MVC) pattern.[29]
  • Nerves is a platform, framework, and tooling environment for building embedded systems and devices.[15][30]
  • Ecto is the database wrapper and query generator for Elixir.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Releases - elixir-lang/elixir". Retrieved 18 July 2019 – via GitHub.
  2. ^ "elixir/LICENSE at master · elixir-lang/elixir · GitHub". GitHub.
  3. ^ "Most Popular Programming Languages of 2018 - Elite Infoworld Blog". 2018-03-30. Retrieved 2018-05-08.
  4. ^ "Elixir". José Valim. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
  5. ^ "Elixir at PagerDuty". PagerDuty. 2018-06-14. Retrieved 2019-04-21.
  6. ^ Vishnevskiy, Stanislav (Jul 6, 2017). "How Discord Scaled Elixir to 5,000,000 Concurrent Users". Retrieved 2019-04-21.
  7. ^ "What's New in Release 6.0 | Documentation". www.emetrotel.com. Retrieved 2019-04-21.
  8. ^ "Introducing new open-source tools for the Elixir community". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  9. ^ "Unlocking New Features in Moz Pro with a Database-Free Architecture". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  10. ^ "Elixir". Bleacher Report Engineering. Retrieved 2019-05-22.
  11. ^ Lucia, Dave (Sep 24, 2018). "Two years of Elixir at The Outline". Retrieved 2019-05-22.
  12. ^ "What big projects use Elixir?". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  13. ^ "Why Divvy uses Elixir instead of more popular coding languages". Retrieved 2019-04-30.
  14. ^ "Elixir in production interview: Garth Hitchens". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  15. ^ a b "Nerves - Craft and deploy bulletproof embedded software in Elixir". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  16. ^ "ElixirConf". Retrieved 2018-07-11.
  17. ^ "ElixirConf". Retrieved 2018-07-11.
  18. ^ "Erlang & Elixir Fest". Retrieved 2019-02-18.
  19. ^ "Elixir LDN". Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  20. ^ "EMPEX - Empire State Elixir Conference". Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  21. ^ Elixir - A modern approach to programming for the Erlang VM. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
  22. ^ José Valim - ElixirConf EU 2017 Keynote. Retrieved 2017-07-14.
  23. ^ "Elixir: A Mini-Documentary". Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  24. ^ Elixir is a dynamic, functional language designed for building scalable and maintainable applications: elixir-lang/elixir, Elixir, 2019-04-21, retrieved 2019-04-21
  25. ^ a b c d e f "Elixir". Retrieved 2014-09-07.
  26. ^ Loder, Wolfgang (12 May 2015). Erlang and Elixir for Imperative Programmers. "Chapter 16: Code Structuring Concepts", section title "Actor Model": Leanpub. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  27. ^ "Writing assertive code with Elixir". Retrieved 2018-07-05.
  28. ^ "Mix". Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  29. ^ "Overview". Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  30. ^ "Getting Started". Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  31. ^ "Getting Started". Retrieved 2019-04-16.

External links[edit]