Remote Audio Output Protocol

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Remote Audio Output Protocol (RAOP) is an Internet streaming protocol based on RTSP / RTP authored by Apple Inc.[1][2] It powers the AirPlay technology built into AirPort Express wireless (802.11b/g/n) access point as well as the Apple TV.[2]

The major difference from RTSP is an initial asymmetric key verification made by iTunes to verify it is communicating with an AirPort Express or an Apple TV (as opposed to a simulation), and vice versa. The data channel is also encrypted by AES, with a random key protected by the asymmetric key mentioned above.[citation needed]

The RSA public key stored in iTunes was extracted by Jon Lech Johansen, enabling third-party software to stream music to an Airport Express.[3]

The RSA private key stored in the AirPort Express was extracted by James Laird, enabling simulation of an Airport Express.[4]

The Shairport-sync application which emulates Airport Express hardware is available.[5]


  1. ^ "Unofficial AirPlay Protocol Specification". Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Technical note to describe the Remote Audio Access Protocol (RAOP) as used in Apple iTunes to stream music to the Airport Express". XMMS2 organization wiki. xmms2. 7 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  3. ^ "[vlc-devel] commit: Comment for myself ( Rémi Denis-Courmont )". 2008-01-02. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  4. ^ "[vlc-devel] RAOP/Airtunes". Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  5. ^ "shairport-sync". Retrieved 2016-09-16.

External links[edit]