Results-based management (RBM) is a tool for monitoring and managing the implementation of strategy favoured particularly by organisations and agencies that are part of or are linked to the United Nations. It in many respects is similar to the Logical Framework, a strategy implementation tool used extensively by Non-governmental organizations.
RBM is an example of a tool used for strategic control. It uses feedback loops to help managers monitor and then (hopefully) achieve strategic goals. These goals may take the form of physical outputs, organisational or behavioural changes, workflow changes, or form contribution to some other higher level goal. Information (evidence) of the actual results is used for accountability, reporting, communication and to feedback into the design, resourcing and delivery of projects and operational activities. During the design of an RBM system all people and organisations (actors) who contribute directly or indirectly to the result, map out their business processes, products and services, showing how they contribute to the outcomes being pursued, and this information is used to identify appropriate measures of progress.
Usage of RBM
The framework is largely used in government and charitable organisations, where purely financial measures are not the key drivers and there is no competition to benchmark against, such as the United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross. However, it has also started to be used in semi-commercial organisations such as the Asian Development Bank. At the United Nations, an in-depth results-based approach to programme development and implementation across the majority of all agencies has been applied since 2000, based on the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s reform programme of 1997. Results-based budgeting, which is the term for RBM throughout the UN Secretariat, was first applied in the planning of the biennium 2002-2003 and in all programming cycles thereafter.
- Assess: What is the current situation?
- Think: What caused it? Who is involved?
- Envision: What are we going to achieve?
- Plan: How are we going to do it? With whom? When? With what resources?
- Do: Get it done. How is it going? Do we need to adapt?
- Review: What went well/badly? What can we learn for next time?
- Lawrie, Gavin; Kalff, Dirk; Andersen, Henrik (September 2005). "Balanced Scorecard and Results Based Management - Convergent Performance Management Systems" (PDF). Proceedings of 3rd Annual Conference on Performance Measurement and Management Control, The European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM), Nice, France. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- United Nations Development Group. "Results-Based Management (RBM)". undg.org. United Nations. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- United Nations Development Group. Results-based Management Handbook. United Nations. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- Mayne, John (2007). "Challenges and Lessons in Implementing Results-Based Management". Evaluation. 13 (1): 87–109. doi:10.1177/1356389007073683. ISSN 1356-3890.
- UNESCO. "Strategic Planning and Results-based Management". www.unesco.org. United Nations. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- ICRC (31 May 2008). Project / programme management: The results-based approach. Publication Ref. 0951. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- Bank, Asian Development (1 December 2006). "An Introduction to Results Management: Principles, Implications, and Applications". adb.org. Asian Development Bank. Publication Stock No. 011306. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- See the UN General Assembly resolution that adoption the so-called results-based budgeting reform: "Resolution adopted by the General Assembly – Results-based budgeting". undocs.org. United Nations. 23 December 2000. A/RES/55/231. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- See Kofi Annan's reform proposal called "Renewing the United Nations: A Programme for Reform". undocs.org. United Nations. 14 July 1997. A/51/950. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- See a comprehensive review from 2006 of the UN's results-based budgeting reform by the UN's Joint Inspection Unit: Ortiz, Even Fontaine; Tang, Guangting. "Results-based management in the United Nations in the context of the reform process". undocs.org. United Nations. JIU/REP/2006/6. Retrieved 24 March 2017.