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Rowanburn is a hamlet in Eskdale, Dumfriesshire, in southern Scotland, near Canonbie, and about 5 miles south-east of Langholm. It is administered by Dumfries and Galloway Council.

Rowanburn was founded as a coal mining community in the late 19th century to house miners from the Canonbie coalfield. The coal mines are now closed. To the south is the Riddings Viaduct, a nine-span railway viaduct built in 1864 for the Border Union Railway.

The only village shop, and garden centre, closed in 2003.

Several farms in the area were devastated by the 2001 foot and mouth crisis which spread rapidly via the local livestock market at Longtown.

Coordinates: 55°05′10″N 2°55′34″W / 55.086°N 2.926°W / 55.086; -2.926