Pinacoidal (1) |
(same H-M symbol)
|Formula mass||313.11 g/mol|
|Refractive index||nα = 1.520 nβ = 1.524 nγ = 1.527|
|Birefringence||δ = 0.007|
Rubicline, also referred to as Rb-microcline, is the rubidium analogue of microcline, an important tectosilicate mineral. Its chemical formula is (Rb, K)[AlSi3O8] with an ideal composition of RbAlSi3O8. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe indicated the average weight of the crystal is 56.66% SiO2, 16.95% Al2O3, and 23.77% Rb2O, along with trace amounts of caesium oxide (Cs2O) and iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3).
Rubicline was first discovered in 1998 in Elba, Italy, by a team from the University of Manitoba. It was the first mineral to have been discovered with rubidium as an essential constituent. It has also been found in Mozambique and the Kola Peninsula in Russia. Rubicline occurs as small, abundant, rounded grains found within veins of rubidian microcline. Pure rubicline with an ideal potassium-free composition has never been found in nature. Rubicline was synthesized in 2001 by placing powdered albite in a solvent of RbCl. This mixture was then placed in a silver tube containing H2O, heated to 400 °C and pressurized to 60 MPa.
Unlike microcline, which can be yellow, red, or green, rubicline is colorless. It is also transparent, brittle, and has a vitreous luster. Rubicline has been classified as both triclinic and monoclinic. The crystal does not show twinning. Other minerals in this group include adularia, anorthoclase, buddingtonite, celsian, hyalophane, microcline, monalbite, orthoclase, and sanidine.
|1000 g / 8.79 cm||183,355||4.96×10−6||8,449.31||2.78|
|100 g / 4.08 cm||18,336||4.96×10−7||844.93||0.28|
|10 g / 1.89 cm||1,834||4.96×10−8||84.49||0.03|
|1 g / 8.79 mm||183||4.96×10−9||8.45||0.00|
|0.1 g / 4.08 mm||18||4.96×10−10||0.84||0.00|
|0.01 g / 1.89 mm||2||4.96×10−11||0.08||0.00|
|0.001 g / 0.88 mm||0||4.96×10−12||0.01||0.00|
- If held in hand for one hour.
- Government estimate of average annual exposure (360 mRem)
- Max permissible adult dose 50,000 mRem/yr (hands), 15,000 mRem/yr (eyes)
- Lethal exposure 400,000 to 500,000 mRem
- Rubicline at Webminerals
- Rubicline at Mindat
- Kyono, A. & Kimata, M. (August 2001). "Refinement of the crystal structure of a synthetic non-stoichiometric Rb-feldspar" (PDF). Mineralogical Magazine. 65 (4): 523–531. doi:10.1180/002646101750377542.
- Teertstra, David K.; et al. (December 2008). "Rubicline, a new feldspar from San Piero in Campo, Elba, Italy". American Mineralogist. 83 (11–12): 1335–1339.
- Teertstra, D. K.; Cerny, P.; Hawthorne, F. C. (1999). "Subsolidus rubidium-dominant feldspar from the Morrua pegmatite, Mozambique: paragenesis and composition". Mineralogical Magazine. 63 (3): 313–320. doi:10.1180/002646199548538. ISSN 0026-461X.
- "Rubicline R070044". RRUFF. Retrieved 15 February 2010.
- Ralph, Jolyon & Chau, Ida (2010). "Rubicline". Mindat.org. Retrieved 15 February 2010.