Rudnica, Lubusz Voivodeship
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Rudnica (German Hammer - Solecka) is a village in Poland, in the Krzeszyce gmina, Sulęcin County, Lubusz Voivodeship. It is 4 km east of the village of Kołczyn and 14 km south-west of Gorzów Wielkopolski. It is located 1 km east of the Lubniewka River, a regional tributary of the Warta River, and 2 km southward from the railway line leading from Gorzów Wielkopolski to Kostrzyn nad Odrą. Rudnica is on the edge of the Sulęcińsko-Skwierzyński forests, to the south of Kołczyn. From 1975 to 1998 the village was administratively part of the Gorzów Voivodeship.
Traces of the smelting of iron ore were discovered on the turf eras from ancient times. The village of Rudnica was established in the 15th century. Rudnica as a town, belonged to Brandenburg in Germany. Both the German and Polish names refer to iron ore being smelted here. Rudnica seized land in the first half of the 16th century (called Kolchin) since the founding of the ironworks. So at first, the ironworks settlement was called Neue Koltzschen (New Kolchin). Beginning in the 1580s the same iron forging area was called die Rede. In 1608 the Grunewoldta relationship was Klem Neuen Koltzen. In 1718, Hammer oder saved the settlement of Koltschen Klem, given as a small Kolchin. Listed in Bratringa's writings in the early 19th century, there is only Hammer. Knight Capital operated under the name Hammer-Koltschen. In 1631, the name Hammerkelschen was used. Many times people combined the German name of the village with the property name and new names would be derived on the spot. After the construction of ironworks the river was called Hammerflief. Unused today, the colony was called Hammerbusch, the court was called Hammerhof, then Altenhof. After 1945, an old mansion was located in Opieczki, a northeastern Rudnica hamlet and Hammereeke (meaning: k Nałżczyn hair). The old mansion of Waldowów was only mentioned in 1715 as a fief in a document. The village belonged to Colonel Arend von Waldow, who had three small sons at the time. Three years later, the fief and its cornfields had four co-owners: Lt.-Col. Adam Christoph von Waldow, Lt.-Col. Friedrich Sigismund von Waldow, Cpt. Karl von Maxen Andersen, (indebted to the Stobno farm), and the Ducal Saxon Waldowów and Sebastian von Waldow. In 1747, part of the village was to be given to the Adam Carl Waldow vin orphanage. Confirmation of this fact could not be found later, even in Bratringa's writings, or in any testament. Over the years Rudnica, together with part of Kolchin, acquired the land of Karl Sigismund von Reitzenstein. His successor was Carl Ernest Sigismund von Reitzenstein, who in the years 1786-1790 built the Kielpino palace and in 1800 founded the bell in Kołczynie. In 1795 by marriage, (probably by his daughter Ernestine von Reitzenstein to Carl Christian von Waldow), the ownership of Rudnica came back into the Waldowów family. Their descendants, in 1820, began using the name von Waldow-Reitzenstein. Later, only one third of Rudnica belonged to Sam Rudnica. In the 18th century part of Rudnica was again subjected to the farm in Stobno. However, with the emancipation of the property of Stobno (horns emblem), this part of the village of Rudnica was freed. In 1865, the town of Rudnica became part of the new entailment of Reitzenstein in Kiełpino.
The palace of Rudnica was built after the 30 years war (1618-1648). Although in 1631 the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus occupied Hammerkelschen, it could have been Kolchin. Rudnica was the seat of the Knights gatherings in 1724. It was located northeast from the village farm Hammerholf (forging court). Even in the early 19th century, Bratring wrote that Hammerhof is actually a noble Rudnica property in the city, located a few hundred yards from the village. This was the twilight of the glory of this settlement, in addition to the established classical palace of Kielpino having been built in 1790, it bore the Reitzenstein tribal name of the new owners. From that time period it was called Hammerhof Altenhof (old mansion). After 1945 it was called Opieczki and this name was recorded in the "Dictionary". By virtue of location Rudnica was a hamlet before 1945. Opieczki officially escaped being known as the Kiełpin (west Polish) community. Until the 18th century Kolchin was part of the Rudnica property, described in 1972, as Waldower Gestift oder Kolschenschen Territirium. In 1715, the estates created in the 15th and 16th century settlement were Rudnica, Brzozowa, (Neuwalde), Stobno, (Stubbenhgen), Mashko, (Neudorf), and Rudna (Rauden). In 1775, damages were awarded including assets that benefited the colonies (Lossow) and Krzyszczyzna (Cocceji).
As a result of adjustments in the years 1770-1778, lands originally belonging to Warta called Rudnica and Kolchin formed the colonies Szamarzewice (Altona), Silicon (Scheiblersburg), Łukomin (Streitwalde) and Kiełpin (Reitzenstein). The tradition of chivalry became part of the history of the branches of the Waldowów Rudnica family. In 1785, the property that became Włostów colonies, Szamarzewice, and (now non-existent Kolchin Ernestinenburg) took 7 colonists, and Babice (Weiberwerder) took 75 settlers, 10 peasants and 12 working-class families, and the farms Waldow and Treck as part of their establishment. In 1750 Waldowstrenk, or Wałdowice, Kiełpin Kolchin and the 12 workers, 8 Zagrodniks (people from Zagrodnik), a peasant, and four members of the noble household and moved to the new area. They took mills, glassworks, brickworks, a Smolarnia (smokehouse), a sawmill, and a mysterious manor by the name of Schalm and founded their own settlement. Sometime after 1778, a colony was founded called Hammersche Bush, later Hammerbusch. With a population of 20 families this settlement was "a mile from Rudnica", probably close to the neighborhood of Kolchin. The writer Bratring in the 19th century stated that the first quarter of the century belonged to Rudnica and Kolchin and the middle of the century to Babice and Dryer. In the mid-19th century the mansion Hammer Koltschen was 18,759 acres (4,789 hectare), of which 16 thousand acres was forest. Arable land 2,443 acres (624 hectare), with 130 acres of meadows and pasture making up 20 percent of the property. It was bordered by Berghaus owned land, the village of Rudnica, and forest belonging to the Lubniewice, Pniewy, Gorzow, and Boleminem. Scarlet fever affected the populace at one time. The estate belonged in part to Kiełpin, Wadowice, Szamarzewice, Ernestinenburg, a third part to Rudnica, a fourth part to Kolchin, some to crippled Kalkmuhle, as well to k. Wałdowic, Babice, Nałeczyn (Hammerecke), k. Hair and Hair himself.
The property in Rudnica in 1718 had five cornfields. In 1785 the farm of Hammerhof had 10 families living in cottage housing. In the late 18th or early 19th century, with the collapse of farming, Altenhof-Opieczki transformed itself into a forest village. Wielodrożnica sześciopromiennej means star-shaped, in the middle-square triangle, a description of the buildings. According to the descriptions of the pre-dominant multi-story buildings, they were plastered and timbered. In 1538, the start the ironworks gave the village is remembered for the first time. Muhlenflieb changed its name to Hammerflieb because of the ironworks located in the village of Lubniewka. In 1580 there were 3 houses in the village. In records of 1662 the village had 38 cornfields. By the 19th century there were 14 arable fiefs. In 1850, the village had 780 acres (about 200 hectare), of which 473 acres were owned by peasants, the rest by the nobles. In the years 1601 and 1615 the records showed that the village had 36 peasants and three shepherds. During the 30 years war (1618-1648) the village had suffered great damage, as a census in 1662 showed only 19 peasants, a pastor and a shepherd, with seventeen farms standing empty. In 1718, 29 peasants cultivated the fields, with 2 more owning a small sawmill. By 1785 there were 28 cottagers and 4 members of the nobility household living in Rudnica. This did not count the farm workers (under the control of the Stobno farm) and colony members of (prawdop. Hammerbusch). In the early 19th century, there were 28 Rudnica cottagers (or peasants), (Ganz-Kossaten), also 11 bailiffs. The countryside was characterized by service to the court, and to local businesses, where they had to work for zagrodnicy (landed farmers). The subjects of Rudnica had some assets in Stobno.
According to the totals of the 1785 census there were 11 cottagers, and seven bailiffs. In the late 18th century, 39 cottagers lived in the village, which is similar to the beginning of the 17th century. In the 1850s, part of the village belonged to the estate of the Stobno farm. The writer Berghaus calculated the total population was 49. In 1939 the total population in Rudnica was given as 211 individuals in households. Before independence in 1945 it was a rural commune.
Agriculture was never the main livelihood of the population. In 1718 the arable land was divided into three cleared fields, and sandy fiefs containing poor soil were recorded in the census. The annual sowing was 63% rye, barley 21%, 5% vetch, and 10% flax and hemp. Total hay harvest was 152 carts of hay. The grasslands in dry years did not produce wet hay. The zagrodnicy (landed farmers) had 8 horses, 67 oxen, 137 cows, 70 sheep, 42 pigs, and 40 geese. Several cottagers had beehives.
Buildings 1850. -3 Homes, 1804, 59, 1982. 98 . People:1804. 291 inhabitants, 1830. 327, 1939. 656. After the war, no country had reached this level of population: 1949. -318, 1958. -419; Census of 1970. 409 people showed the population has been steadily decreasing: 1978. -368, 1988. -345. Before 1945. the village was of the German Evangelical faith. Some of the names of the cottagers were recorded in 1718. Residents names at that time: Stabs, Pohl, Mertzke, Wutzke, Teicherd, Moritz, Hauschcke, Tam, Lunderstadt, Slate, Kube, Scheider, Ulrich, Loppem, Lange, Schultze, Schroder, Grunow, Seyfert, Zeise, Potke, Mottner. After 1945. the village was populated first by ex. military, then as the area was earmarked for settlement, it was led by 5 displaced persons.In early 1945 It was occupied by German troops. Until 1975 it was part of District Sulęcinski (formerly Wschodniotorzymski), in the province of Zielona Gora. Before 1945, an independent rural commune, then after World War II it was clustered together with the community of Kolchin. For the years 1945 to 1972 it was a parish in the district of the National Council of Kolchin.