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This article is about SQL:2003, a revision of the SQL standard. For more information about SQL, see the main SQL article.

SQL:2003 is the fifth revision of the SQL database query language. The latest revision of the standard is SQL:2011.


The SQL:2003 standard makes minor modifications to all parts of SQL:1999 (also known as SQL3), and officially introduces a few new features such as:[1]

  • XML-related features (SQL/XML)
  • Window functions
  • the sequence generator, which allows standardized sequences
  • two new column types: auto-generated values and identity-columns
  • the new MERGE statement
  • extensions to the CREATE TABLE statement, to allow "CREATE TABLE AS" and "CREATE TABLE LIKE"
  • removal of the poorly implemented "BIT" and "BIT VARYING" data types
  • OLAP capabilities (initially added in SQL:1999) were extended with a window function.[2]

Documentation availability[edit]

The SQL standard is not freely available. SQL:2003 may be purchased from ISO or ANSI. A late draft is available as a zip archive from Whitemarsh Information Systems Corporation. The zip archive contains a number of PDF files that define the parts of the SQL:2003 specification.


  1. ^ Eisenberg, Andrew; et al. (March 2004). "SQL:2003 Has Been Published". SIGMOD Record. 33 (1): 119. doi:10.1145/974121.974142. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2007-11-11. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  2. ^ Christian S. Jensen; Torben Bach Pedersen; Christian Thomsen (2010). Multidimensional Databases and Data Warehousing. Morgan & Claypool Publishers. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-60845-537-9. 

External links[edit]