A sacerdotal state is a state whose head is also an ecclesiastical leader designated by a religious body. An example of this kind of state is the Vatican City, whose head of state is the Pope of the Catholic Church. Andorra operates under a semi-sacerdotal system, as one of its co-heads of state is the Bishop of Urgell. In the past it was common for bishops to assume civil as well as clerical power and rule as Prince-Bishops.
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