Benkei

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Benkei by Kikuchi Yōsai

Saito Musashibō Benkei (武蔵坊弁慶, 1155–1189), popularly called Benkei, was a Japanese warrior monk (sōhei) who lived in the latter years of the [1]Heian Period (794-1185). As he lived he came to respect and serve the famous warrior Minamoto no Yoshitsune. He is commonly depicted as a man of great strength and loyalty, and a popular subject of Japanese folklore.

Early life[edit]

Stories about Benkei's birth vary considerably. One tells how his father was the head of a temple shrine who had raped his mother, the daughter of a blacksmith. Another sees him as the offspring of a temple god. Many give him the attributes of a demon, a monster child with wild hair and long teeth. In his youth, Benkei may have been called Oniwaka (鬼若)—"demon/ogre child", and there are many famous ukiyo-e works themed on Oniwakamaru and his adventures. He is said to have defeated 200 men in each battle he was personally involved in.

Benkei chose to join the monastic establishment at an early age and travelled widely among the Buddhist monasteries of Japan. During this period, monasteries were important centers of administration and culture, but also military powers in their own right, similar to the Roman Legions. Like many other monks, Benkei was most likely trained in the use of the naginata, the Half-Moon spear. At the age of seventeen, Benkei was said to have been 2 meters tall. At this point, he left the Buddhist Monastery and became a yamabushi, a member of a sect of mountain ascetics, Benkei was commonly depicted wearing a black cap that was a signature theme of such mountain ascetics.[2]

Seven Famous Weapons[edit]

Benkei armed himself with seven weapons, and may be depicted carrying these on his back. In addition to his sword he carried a broad axe (masakari), a rake (kumade), a sickle (nagigama), a wooden mallet (hizuchi), a saw (nokogiri), an iron staff (tetsubō), and a half-moon spear (naginata).[3]

Career[edit]

Benkei is said to have posted himself at Gojō Bridge in Kyoto, where he disarmed every passing swordsman, eventually collecting 999 swords. On his 1000th duel, Benkei was defeated by Minamoto no Yoshitsune, a son of Minamoto no Yoshitomo. Henceforth, he became Yoshitsune's retainer and fought with him in the Genpei War against the Taira clan.[4] Yoshitsune is credited with most of the Minamoto clan's successes against the Taira, especially the final naval battle of Dannoura. After their ultimate triumph, however, Yoshitsune's elder brother Minamoto no Yoritomo turned against him.[5]

From 1185 until his death in 1189, Benkei accompanied Yoshitsune as an outlaw.[6] In the end, they were encircled in the castle of Koromogawa no tate. As Yoshitsune retired to the inner keep of the castle to commit ritual suicide (seppuku) on his own, Benkei fought on at the bridge in front of the main gate to protect Yoshitsune. It is said that the soldiers were afraid to cross the bridge to confront him, and all that did met swift death at the hands of the gigantic man, who killed in excess of 300 fully trained soldiers.

Death[edit]

Realizing that close combat would mean suicide, the Minamoto no Yoritomo warriors decided to shoot and kill Benkei with arrows instead. Long after the battle should have been over, the soldiers noticed that the arrow-riddled, wound-covered Benkei was standing still. When the soldiers dared to cross the bridge and look more closely, the giant fell to the ground, having died standing upright.[7] This is known as the "Standing Death of Benkei" (弁慶の立往生, Benkei no Tachi Ōjō). Benkei had died at 34 years old.

Adaptions[edit]

It is Benkei's loyalty and honour which makes him most attractive in Japanese folklore. There is a silent, Black and White movie adaptation of Benkei's story simply titled Benkei (1912)[8]. One kabuki play places Benkei in a moral dilemma, caught between lying and protecting his lord in order to cross a bridge. The critical moment of the drama is its climax, where the monk realises his situation and vows to do what he must. In another play, Benkei even slays his own child to save the daughter of a lord. In the Noh play Ataka, Benkei must beat his own master (disguised as a porter) in order to avoid breaking his disguise. Ataka is later adapted as the kabuki play Kanjinchō, and filmed by Akira Kurosawa as [9]The Men Who Tread on the Tiger's Tail.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tsutsui, W. M. (2007). "The Heian Period". Oxford Blackwell Publishing. 
  2. ^ Yoshikawa, Eiji (1956). The Heike Story: A Modern Translation of the Classic Tale of Love and War. New York: New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-8048-1376-0. 
  3. ^ Ashkenazi, Michael (2003). Handbook of Japanese Mythology. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 124–125. ISBN 1576074676. 
  4. ^ Kitagawa, Hiroshi et al. (1975). The Tale of the Heike, pp. 535, 540, 654, 656, 669.
  5. ^ Sato, Hiroaki (1995). Legends of the Samurai. Overlook Duckworth. p. 144. ISBN 9781590207307. 
  6. ^ Sansom, George (1958). A History of Japan to 1334. Stanford University Press. p. 317,326. ISBN 0804705232. 
  7. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (1977). The Samurai, A Military History. MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. p. 83. ISBN 0026205408. 
  8. ^ Benkei, 1912, retrieved 2018-04-18 
  9. ^ Kurosawa, Akira (1960-02-28), The Men Who Tread on the Tiger's Tail, Denjirô Ôkôchi, Susumu Fujita, Ken'ichi Enomoto, retrieved 2018-04-18 

References[edit]

  • Ribner, Susan, Richard Chin and Melanie Gaines Arwin. (1978). The Martial Arts. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-024999-4.
  • Kitagawa, Hiroshi and Bruce T. Tsuchida. (1975). The Tale of the Heike. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 0-86008-189-3.
  • Yoshikawa, Eiji. (1956). The Heike Story: A Modern Translation of the Classic Tale of Love and War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ASIN B0007BR0W8 (cloth).
    • _____. (1981). The Heike Story: A Modern Translation of the Classic Tale of Love and War. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-1376-0 (paper).
    • _____. (2002). The Heike Story: A Modern Translation of the Classic Tale of Love and War. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3318-4 (paper).
  • (in Japanese) _____. (1989) Yoshikawa Eiji Rekishi Jidai Bunko (Eiji Yoshikawa's Historical Fiction), Vols. 47–62 Shin Heike monogatari (新平家物語). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-196577-8.

External links[edit]