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|•||1236 - 1268 AD||Raja Kambeera Sambuvarayar|
|•||1322 - 1337 AD||Mankonda Sambuvarayar|
|•||1337 - 1373 AD||Rajanarayana Sambuvarayar|
|•||1356 - 1375 AD||Rajanarayana Sambuvarayar III|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|•||Established||12th century AD|
|•||Rise of the Sambu dynasty|
The Sambuvarayar chieftains once ruled the Tondai mandalam region in India. Among them was Ethirili Chola Sambuvarayar, a vassal under Rajadhiraja Chola II and Kulothunga Chola III, who ruled the northern part of Thondaimandalam, now comprising the districts of Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur.
The Sambuvarayars ruled mainly northern districts. The first chieftain identified is Omainthan Munnutruvan Palliyana Karanamanikam, whose name appears in an ancient inscription. He is considered to be the ancestor of the Sengeni Sambuvarayas. He is identified during Sundara Chola’s rule. After him the Sambuvarayas started gaining power and soon attained the position of feudatory rulers.
The vassal had constructed the hill fort to watch and control the movements of the northern enemies. The fort has four gates in four directions. The northern gate was now called as Santhagate. The other gates were damaged. While the eastern gate was in a dilapidated condition, the western gate on which was found the inscription has been completely damaged. This gate was named after Puvandai alias Cholakon. He was one of the Mudalis in the military service of Ethirilichola Sambuvarayar. One hero stone has been erected on the plains, north of the Santhagate.
The fort was constructed with granite with a perimeter extending to 2 kilometres (1.2 mi). This fort once had residences and `pandals' for warriors who were posted for duties. Holes had been made on the rock surface in such a way as to erect round tents. One could see nine tent areas on the top of the hill. Besides, four water tanks had been created to provide drinking water. Two natural water ponds were also available in the fort.
Near the big tank a mortar with one foot depth and one foot diameter was dug and used.
The area also revealed clear traces of Shiva and Pillaiyar temples. Stone blocks, bricks each measuring 10 inches x 7 inches, lime mortar and sand were used in the construction of the fort walls.
- "Padavedu". State Department of Archaeology, Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India (Reprinted ed.). Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-41532-919-4.