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|•||1236 - 1268 AD||Raja Gambhira Sambhuvaraya|
|•||1322 - 1337 AD||Mankonda Sambhuvaraya|
|•||1337 - 1373 AD||Rajanarayana Sambhuvaraya|
|•||1356 - 1375 AD||Rajanarayana Sambhuvaraya II|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|•||Established||12th century AD|
The Sambhuvaraya chieftains once ruled the Tonda Mandalam region of South India. Among them was Edirili Chola Sambhuvaraya, a vassal under Rajadhiraja Chola II and Kulotunga Chola III, who ruled the northern part of Tondamandalam, now comprising the districts of Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Kancheepuram, Kadalur Tiruvallur, Nellore, and Chittoor.
The Sambhuvaraya capital was at Marudaraya Padaveedu, now known as Padavedu in Poluru taluk, Tiruvannamala district, Tamil Nadu. Padaveedu (also spelt Padavedu) is the site of the popular Sri Yellamma temple (Renuka Parameswari temple). The first chieftain identified is Omaindha Munnutruvan Palliyana Karanamanikyam, whose name appears in an ancient inscription. He is considered to be the ancestor of the Sengineni Sambhuvarayas. He is identified during Parantaka Chola’s rule. After him the Sambhuvarayas started gaining power and soon attained the position of feudatory rulers.
The vassal had constructed a hill fort, Rajagambhiram, at present day Padaveedu, to watch and control the movements of the northern enemies. The fort has four gates in four directions. The northern gate was now called as Shanta gate. The other gates were damaged. While the eastern gate was in a dilapidated condition, the western gate on which was found the inscription has been completely damaged. This gate was named after Puvandai alias Cholakon, one of the Mudalis in the military service of Edhirili Chola Sambhuvaraya. One hero stone has been erected on the plains, north of the Shanta gate.
The fort was constructed with granite with a perimeter extending to 2 kilometres (1.2 mi). This fort once had residences and `pandals' for warriors who were posted for duties. Holes had been made on the rock surface in such a way as to erect round tents. One could see nine tent areas on the top of the hill. Besides, four water tanks had been created to provide drinking water. Two natural water ponds were also available in the fort. Near the big tank a mortar with one foot depth and one foot diameter was dug and used.The area also revealed clear traces of Shiva and Vinayaka temples. Stone blocks, bricks each measuring 10 inches x 7 inches, lime mortar and sand were used in the construction of the fort walls.
The fort was conquered and captured by Kumara Kampanam, the son of Bukka, in AD 1361, after which he went south to crush the Sultanate of Madura. This led to the gradual decline of the Sambhuvaraya dynasty and the consolidation of the Vijayanagara empire outside Velanadu.
- "Padavedu". State Department of Archaeology, Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- Padavedu Excavation. Madras: State Department of Archaeology, Madras, India. 1993 – via http://220.127.116.11/pdf_files/books/PADAVEDU%20EXCAVATION%20part%20003.pdf.
- Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India (Reprinted ed.). Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-41532-919-4.