Chittoor district

Coordinates: 13°12′58″N 79°05′49″E / 13.216°N 79.097°E / 13.216; 79.097
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Chittoor district
Galigopuram of Vinayaka Temple, Kanipakam
Location of Chittoor district in Andhra Pradesh
Location of Chittoor district in Andhra Pradesh
Map
Coordinates: 13°12′58″N 79°05′49″E / 13.216°N 79.097°E / 13.216; 79.097
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
RegionRayalaseema
Formed1 April 1911
Reorganized4 April 2022
HeadquartersChittoor
Largest CityChittoor
Government
 • District collectorM. Harinarayan,IAS
 • Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha list
 • Assembly
Area
 • Total6,855 km2 (2,647 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[1] [3]
 • Total1,872,951
 • Sex ratio
985 (females per 1,000 males)
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu
 • SpokenTelugu, Tamil, Kannada
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Postal Index Number
517xxx
Area codes+91–8572
ISO 3166 codeIN-AP
Vehicle registrationAP-03 (former) AP–39 (from 30 January 2019)[4]
Websitechittoor.ap.gov.in

Chittoor district (pronunciation ) is one of the eight districts in the Rayalaseema region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It has a population of 18,72,951 according to 2011 census of India.[5] It is a major market centre for mangoes, grains, sugarcane, and peanuts. The district headquarters is located at Chittoor.

Etymology[edit]

The district derived its name from its headquarters Chittoor.[6]

History[edit]

After the Indian independence in 1947, Chittoor region became a part of the erstwhile Madras state. The modern Chittoor district was formerly Arcot District, which was established by the British in the 19th century. It had Chittoor as its headquarters.

Chittoor district was constituted on 1st April, 1911 with the taluks of Chittoor, Palamaner and Chandragiri from Old North Arcot district of Tamilnadu, Madanapalle and Voyalpadu Taluks of Kadapa district and Ex-Zamindari areas of Pileru, Punganur, Srikalahasthi, Puttur and Old Karvetinagar estate. As a result of Pataskar Award consequent on the re-organisation of the state on linguistic basis on 1st April, 1960, a major portion of Tiruthani taluk was transferred to Chengalpattu district of Tamilnadu in exchange for one taluk known as Sathyavedu comprising 186 villages from Tamilnadu. The district was organised into 66 revenue mandals in 1985.[7][8]

On 4 April 2022, Annamayya district and Tirupati district are formed from parts of erstwhile Chittoor district and others.[9] This has resulted in the district becoming primarily rural and losing central educational institutes and health infrastructure.[10]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19011,118,706—    
19111,171,614+0.46%
19211,203,748+0.27%
19311,324,770+0.96%
19411,490,095+1.18%
19511,657,560+1.07%
19611,905,344+1.40%
19712,267,413+1.75%
19812,737,316+1.90%
19913,261,118+1.77%
20013,745,875+1.40%
20114,174,064+1.09%
source:[11]

According to the 2011 census, Chittoor district prior to restructuring in 2022 has a population of 4,174,064.[12][13][14] This gives it a ranking of 47th in India (out of a total of 640) and 6th in its state.[12] The district has a population density of 275 inhabitants per square kilometre (710/sq mi).[12] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 11.33%.[12] Chittoor has a sex ratio of 1002 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 72.36%.[12]

Economy[edit]

The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of the undivided district for FY 2013-14 is 34,742 crore (US$4.4 billion) and it contributes 6.6% to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was 64,671 (US$810). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 8,226 crore (US$1.0 billion), and 18,849 crore (US$2.4 billion) respectively.[15] The major products contributing to the GVA of the district from agriculture and allied services are, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato, mango, milk, meat and fisheries. The GVA to the industrial and service sector is contributed from construction, electricity, manufacturing, education and ownership of dwellings.[15]

Hydrology and climate[edit]

The important rivers in the district prior to restructuring are Ponnai and Swarnamukhi rivers which originate in the Eastern Ghats. Other rivers include Kusasthali, Beema, Bahuda, Pincha, Kalyani, Araniyar and Pedderu. None of the rivers are perennial. Main rivers include Swarnamukhi, Kalangi, Papaghni, Koundinya, Pileru, Arani, Pinchcha, Cheyyeru, Neeva and Kusasthali. The district has a very short coastline, bordered by the Bay of Bengal.

The temperature in the western parts of the undivided district like Pileru, Punganur, Madanapalle, Horsley Hills are relatively lower than the eastern parts of the Chittoor District. This is because of the higher altitude of the western parts compared to the eastern parts. The summer temperatures touches 44 °C in the eastern parts whereas in the western parts it ranges around 36° to 38 °C. Similarly the winter temperatures of the western parts are relatively low ranging around 12 °C to 14 °C and in eastern parts it is 16 °C to 18 °C. Most of a district has a Tropical wet and dry climate, with some north-western parts having Hot semi-arid climate.[16]

Undivided Chittoor district receives an annual rainfall of 918.1 mm. The South West Monsoon and North East Monsoon are the major sources of rainfall for the district. On average the district receives 438.0 mm of rainfall through the South West Monsoon (From June to September) and 396.0 mm from North East Monsoon (From October to December). The rainfall received by the district in the years 2002 and 2003 are 984.2 mm and 934 mm respectively.[17]

Geography[edit]

Chittoor is a part of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh.[18] The district occupies an area of 6,855 square kilometres (2,647 sq mi).[19][20] The district is bounded by Annamayya district to the North, Krishnagiri District, tirupattur District, Vellore District and Tiruvallur District of Tamil Nadu state to the South, Tirupati District to the East, Kolar District of Karnataka state to the West.

The district is located between the northern latitudes of 12°-44’-42″ and 13°-39’-21″ and between the eastern longitudes 78°-2’-2″ and 79°-41’-52″. Chittoor, the district headquarters is 150 km from Chennai, 165 km from Bangalore.[21]

Demographics[edit]

After reorganisation, the district had a population of 18,72,951, of which 368,644 (19.68%) lived in urban areas. Chittoor district has a sex ratio of 993 females per 1000 males. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes made up 3,94,327 (21.05%) and 51,574 (2.75%) of the population respectively.[12]: 82–87 

Languages of Chittoor district based on 2011 Census[22]

  Telugu (73.23%)
  Tamil (16.75%)
  Urdu (8.72%)
  Others (1.30%)

Based on the 2011 census, 73.23% of the population spoke Telugu, 16.75% Tamil and 8.72% Urdu as their first language.[22] Telugu is the primary official language of the district along with English. Tamil is widely spoken in the border areas, especially in Kuppam.[23]

Religions in Chittoor district based on 2011 Census[24]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
90.13%
Islam
9.02%
Christianity
0.50%
Other or not stated
0.35%
Distribution of religions

Administrative divisions[edit]

Chittoor District, Kuppam Division, Palamaneru Division, Nagari Division
Satellite view of Chittoor district

The district is divided into 4 revenue divisions: Chittoor, Kuppam, Nagari and Palamaner, which are further subdivided into a total of 31 mandals, each headed by a sub-collector.[25][26]

Mandals[edit]

The list of 31 mandals in Chittoor district, divided into 4 revenue divisions, is given below.[27]

Cities and Towns[edit]

There are 1 Municipal Corporation for Chittoor and 4 municipalities for Kuppam, Punganur, Palamaner and Nagari in the district.[2]

Municipal Bodies in Chittoor District
Ciy/Town Civil status Revenue Division Population (2011) [2]
Chittoor Municipal Corporation Chittoor 175,647
Nagari Municipality Grade 3 Nagari 62,253
Punganur Municipality Grade 2 Palamaner 57,468
Palamaner Municipality Grade 3 Palamaner 54,035
Kuppam Municipality Grade 3 Kuppam 39,000

Politics[edit]

There are two parliamentary and seven assembly constituencies located in this district. The parliamentary constituencies are Chittoor (Lok Sabha constituency) and Rajampet Lok Sabha constituency(partial). The assembly constituencies are given below.[28]

Constituency number Assembly constituency Reserved for
(SC/ST/None)
Parliamentary constituency
165 Punganur None Rajampet
170 Nagari None Chittoor
171 Gangadhara Nellore SC
172 Chittoor None
173 Puthalapattu SC
174 Palamaner None
175 Kuppam None

Economy[edit]

Agriculture near Chittor

Agriculture and horticulture is the main stay of district economy.

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

NH 69 and NH 40 and pass through the district.[29] Six lane express way connecting Tirupati and Bangalore via Chittoor is operational. [30]

Rail[edit]

Chittoor railway station on Gudur-Katpadi line is a major railway station in the district.

Air[edit]

Nearest domestic airport is Tirupati Airport, at a distance of 86Km from Chittoor.


Education[edit]

Dravidian university is the only university in the district after districts reorganisation. [10]


Tourism[edit]

  • Vinayaka Temple, Kanipakam: at a distance of 11Km from Chittoor, 11th century temple dedicated to Lord Ganesh in Kanipakam.
  • Kaigal Water Falls: at a distance of 28Km from Palamaner, water falls from a height of 40 feet in all seasons
  • Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary : located at a distance of 50Km from Chittoor, spread over 358 SqKm, elephant, cheetal, four horned antelope and other wildlife can be seen here.
  • Veeranjaneya Temple, Ardhagiri: at a distance of 27km from Chittoor, this place is related to mythological story of Lord Hanuman, as the place where the half of the Sanjeevani mountain that he was carrying fell.




Notable people[edit]

V. Nagayya also known as Chittoor Nagayya was brought up in Kuppam. He was a pioneering an Indian actor, singer, music composer, and director of Telugu and Tamil film industry. Cattamanchi Ramalinga Reddy was born in Kattamanchi, a suburb of Chittoor. He was an educationist, an economist, poet and literary critic. Prathap Chandra Reddy born in Aragonda is a cardiologist who founded the first corporate chain of hospitals in India, the Apollo Hospitals.


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Demography". Chittoor district. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census Handbook – Chittoor" (PDF). Census of India. p. 19,21,58. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  3. ^ "District Census Hand Book - Chittoor" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  4. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  5. ^ "Census of India 2011" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in.
  6. ^ Biju, M.R., ed. (2009). Democratic political process. New Delhi, India: Mittal Publications. p. 235. ISBN 978-81-8324-237-0. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  7. ^ "About district". Chittoor district. Retrieved 22 April 2023.
  8. ^ "The Andhra Pradesh And Madras (Alteration Of Boundaries) Act, 1959". indiankanoon.org. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  9. ^ "AP: కొత్త జిల్లాల స్వరూపమిదే.. పెద్ద జిల్లా ఏదంటే?". Sakshi (in Telugu). 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  10. ^ a b Umashanker, K. (2 April 2022). "Chittoor celebrates its last birthday in silence". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  11. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  12. ^ a b c d e f "District Census Hand Book – Chittoor" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  13. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Lebanon 4,143,101 July 2011 est.
  14. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Kentucky 4,339,367
  15. ^ a b "Economy of Chittoor District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  16. ^ "Chittoor district". Atmachittoor.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  17. ^ "Irrigation". Irrigation.cgg.gov.in. Archived from the original on 9 August 2008. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  18. ^ "The District Of Seven Hills – Tirumala". Archived from the original on 21 June 2012.
  19. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti; et al., eds. (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
  20. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2011. Nordaustlandet 14,467
  21. ^ "District Profile". Chittoor district. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  22. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Andhra Pradesh". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  23. ^ Dr. Chigicherla Thirupal Reddy. "Multilingualism in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh". International Research journal of Management Sociology & Humanities.
  24. ^ "Population by Religion - Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  25. ^ "Industrial Profile – Chittoor District" (PDF). Commissionerate of Industries – Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  26. ^ "New AP Map: Check Out Biggest and Smallest Districts in Andhra Pradesh". Sakshi Post. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  27. ^ "Mandals in Chittoor district". AP State Portal. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  28. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). The Election Commission of India. p. 32.
  29. ^ "List of National Highways passing through A.P. State". Roads and Buildings Department. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  30. ^ "List of National Highways passing through A.P. State". Roads and Buildings Department. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2016.

External links[edit]