Chittoor district

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This article is about the district. For its eponymous headquarters, see Chittoor.
Chittoor district
చిత్తూరు జిల్లా
District
Location of Chittoor district
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Rayalaseema
Area
 • Total 15,359 km2 (5,930 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 4,170,468[1]
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ISO 3166 code ISO 3166-2:IN
Headquarters Chittoor
Largest city Tirupati
Sex ratio M-50%/F-40% /
Literacy 72.96%
Lok Sabha seats 2
Vidhan Sabha seats 14
Chittor district is a part of Rayalaseema region (highlighted in blue) in Andhra Pradesh
Archaean rocks formations of Tirumala Hills make a look alike shape of Garuda

Chittoor district (About this sound pronunciation ), also known as Chittur, is a district in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, India. The district headquarters is Chittoor and the largest city is Tirupati. The district has a population of 4,170,468 according to 2011 census of India.[3] Chittoor district has many major temples including Tirupati, Kanipakam and Sri Kalahasti temples. It lies in the Poini river valley of southernmost Andhra Pradesh along the Chennai - Bangalore section Chennai-Mumbai highway. It is a major market center for mangoes, grains, sugarcane, and peanuts.

Etymology[edit]

The word Chittoor is combination of two Tamil words Chit (=small) and ooru (=place), which translates to small town. In ancient days, Chittoor was part of Tamil country of Thondai Nadu.[4]

History[edit]

Chittoor District was formed on 1 April 1911, taking Chittoor, Palamaneru, Chandragiri from the then North Arcot District of Madras State and Madanapalli, Vayalpadu from Kadapa and Punganur, Sri Kalahasti, Karvetinagar from Zamindari provinces to form united Chittoor district. Chandragiri, a suburban area of Tirupati served as fourth capital of Vijayanagar empire.

Geography[edit]

Districts of Andhra Pradesh

Chittoor is a part of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh.[5] The district occupies an area of 15,359 square kilometres (5,930 sq mi).[6][7] The district is bounded by Anantapur District to the northwest, Kadapa District to the north, Nellore District to the northeast, Krishnagiri District, Vellore District and Tiruvallur District of Tamil Nadu state to the south, and Kolar District of Karnataka state to the west. Chittoor district lies extreme south of the Andhra Pradesh state approximately between 12°37′ - 14°8′ north latitudes and 78°3′ - 79°55′ east longitudes. Thirty percent of the total land area is covered by forests in the district.[8] Mango and tamarind groves surround the city of Chittoor, and cattle are raised in the district. The soils in the district constitute red loamy 57%, red sandy 34% and the remaining 9% is covered by black clay black loamy, black sandy and red clay[8] Chittoor is 160 km from Chennai, 180 km from Bangalore and 590 km from Hyderabad.

Hydrology[edit]

The important rivers in the district are Ponnai and Swarnamukhi rivers which originate in eastern ghats. Other rivers include Kusasthali, Beema, Bahuda, Pincha, Kalyani, Araniyar and Pedderu. None of the rivers are perennial. Main rivers include Swarnamukhi, Kalangi, Papaghni, Koundinya, Paleru, Arani, Pinchcha, Cheyyeru, Neeva and Kusasthali

Climate[edit]

The temperature in the western parts of the district like Punganur, Madanapalle, Horsley Hills are relatively lower than the eastern parts of the Chittoor District. This is because of the higher altitude of the western parts compared to the eastern parts. The summer temperatures touches 46 °C in the eastern parts whereas in the western parts it ranges around 36º to 38 °C. Similarly the winter temperatures of the western parts are relatively low ranging around 12 °C to 14 °C and in eastern parts it is 16 °C to 18 °C.[9]

Chittoor district receives an annual rainfall of 918.1 mm. The South West Monsoon and North East Monsoon are the major sources of rainfall for the district. On average the district receives 438.0 mm of rainfall through the South West Monsoon (From June to September) and 396.0 mm from North East Monsoon (From October to December). The rainfall received by the district in the years 2002 and 2003 are 984.2 mm and 934 mm respectively.[10]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Chittoor district has a population of 4,170,468.[11][12][13] This gives it a ranking of 47th in India (out of a total of 640)and 6th in its state.[11] The district has a population density of 275 inhabitants per square kilometre (710/sq mi) .[11] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 11.33%.[11] Chittoor has a sex ratio of 1002 females for every 1000 males,[11] and a literacy rate of 72.36%.[11]

In 2007–2008 the International Institute for Population Sciences interviewed 1010 households in 38 villages across the district.[14] They found that 92.7% had access to electricity, 99.6% had drinking water, 33.3% toilet facilities, and 53.8% lived in a pucca (permanent) home.[14] 29.3% of girls wed before the legal age of 18[15] and 88.2% of interviewees carried a BPL card.[14]

Telugu is the native as well as official language in the district. Urdu is second official language in the district[16] Tamil is widely spoken due to its proximity to Tamil Nadu. It is the native language to over 30% of the district's population. [17][18] A good number of Kannada speakers are concentrated on the western parts of the district bordering Karnataka.

Administrative divisions[edit]

The district is divided into 3 revenue divisions viz., Chittoor, Tirupati and Madanapalle.[19] Each revenue division is divided into mandals. The district has 66 mandals under these 3 revenue divisions.[20] There are 2 Municipal Corporations of Chittoor and Tirupati and 6 municipalities of Madanapalle, Punganur, Palamaner, Nagari, Srikalahasti and Puttur in the district.[21]

Politics

There are 14 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly MLA constituencies in Chittoor district.[22]

Economy[edit]

In 2006 the Indian government named Chittoor one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[23] It is one of the thirteen districts in Andhra Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[23]

Notable people[edit]

Education[edit]

Tirupati is home to multiple institutions of higher learning. Sri Venkateswara University, AP's first women's university Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha are located in Tirupati. Additionally Tirupati urban area is home to several colleges and educational institutions. Kuppam houses the Dravidian University.[24] Chittoor district is home to the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL) of the Department of Space. The lab is involved in carrying out fundamental and applied research in Atmospheric and Space Sciences.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chittoor district profile". Andhra Pradesh State Portal. 
  2. ^ "District - Chittoor". Andhra Pradesh Online Portal. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  3. ^ "Census of India 2011" (PDF). http://censusindia.gov.in. 
  4. ^ Gazetteer of South India, Volume 1 By W. Francis. 
  5. ^ "The District Of Seven Hills - Tirumala". 
  6. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. 
  7. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11. Nordaustlandet 14,467 
  8. ^ a b "National Informatics Center, Chittoor". Chittoor.nic.in. 2005-06-28. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 
  9. ^ "Chittoor district". Atmachittoor.com. Retrieved 2012-11-04. 
  10. ^ "Irrigation". Irrigation.cgg.gov.in. Retrieved 2012-11-04. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  12. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. Lebanon 4,143,101 July 2011 est. 
  13. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. Kentucky 4,339,367 
  14. ^ a b c "District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), 2007-08: India. Andhra Prades" (PDF). International Institute for Population Sciences and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2010. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  15. ^ "How Do I? : Obtain Marriage Certificate". National Portal Content Management Team, National Informatics Centre. 2005. Retrieved 2011-10-03. To be eligible for marriage, the minimum age limit is 21 for males and 18 for females. 
  16. ^ "Language in India". Language in India. Retrieved 2012-08-08. 
  17. ^ "Languages of Andhra Pradesh". India Network Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  18. ^ "War against smugglers, not Tamils: Minister". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  19. ^ "Industrial Profile - Chittoor District" (PDF). Commissionerate of Industries - Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 4. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  20. ^ "Mandals in Chittoor district". AP State Portal. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  21. ^ "Municipalities of Andhra Pradesh". C&DMA Web Site of Government of Andhra Pradesh. Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Retrieved 5 November 2014. 
  22. ^ "District-wise Assembly-Constituencies in Andhra Pradesh". Ceoandhra.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-11-04. 
  23. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Dravidian University Kuppam". grotal.com. 

External links[edit]