San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth

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San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth
San Andreas Fault SAFOD Project.jpg
Schematic representation of the SAFOD borehole and pilot hole
Location
Location Parkfield, California, U.S.
Coordinates 35°58′27″N 120°33′08″W / 35.974204°N 120.552141°W / 35.974204; -120.552141Coordinates: 35°58′27″N 120°33′08″W / 35.974204°N 120.552141°W / 35.974204; -120.552141
Greatest depth 3.2 km (2.0 mi)
History
Opened 2002 (2002)
Owner
Company National Science Foundation
Website www.earthscope.org/about/observatories

The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is a research project begun in 2002 aimed at collecting geological data about the San Andreas Fault for the purpose of predicting and analyzing future earthquakes.[1][2] The site consists of a 2.2 km (1.4 mi) pilot hole and a 3.2 km (2.0 mi) main hole.[3] Located near the town of Parkfield, California, the project has installed geophone sensors and GPS clocks in a borehole that cuts directly through the fault.[3] This data, along with samples collected during drilling, could shed new light on geochemical and mechanical properties around the fault zone.

SAFOD is part of Earthscope, an Earth science program using geological and geophysical techniques to explore the structure of the North American continent and to understand the origin of earthquakes and volcanoes. Earthscope is funded by the National Science Foundation in conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey and NASA.[4] Data collected at SAFOD are available from The Northern California Earthquake Data Center at U.C. Berkeley and at the IRIS DMC.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shiels, Maggie (December 5, 2003). "Project to drill into Earth fault". BBC News. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  2. ^ Shwartz, Mark (December 3, 2003). "Stanford, U.S. Geological Survey team up to get inside scoop on quake zone San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth will permit researchers to collect temblor data 2.4 miles below surface of Earth". Stanford News. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  3. ^ a b "SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth)". Northern California Earthquake Data Center. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  4. ^ "San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved September 4, 2018.

Further reading[edit]

  • Ellsworth, W.L.; S.H. Hickman; M.D. Zoback. "Seismology in the Source: The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth".
  • Ellsworth, W.; S. Hickman; M. Zoback; E. Davis; L. Gee; R. Huggins; R. Krug; C. Lippus; P. Malin; D. Neuhauser (2005). "Observing the San Andreas Fault at depth". Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. 86: 52.
  • Zoback, M. D (1998). Scientific drilling into the San Andreas fault and site characterization research: Planning and coordination efforts. Final technical report.
  • Zoback, M.D.; S.H. Hickman; W. Ellsworth (2002). The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD): testing fundamental theories of earthquake mechanics. 2002 Denver Annual Meeting.
  • Zoback, M. (2003). Scientific Drilling into the San Andreas Fault: The SAFOD Experiment. AAPG Annual Meeting 2003.
  • Zoback, M.D.; S. Hickman; W. Ellsworth (2005). "Overview of SAFOD Phases 1 and 2: Drilling, sampling and measurements in the San Andreas Fault zone at seismogenic depth". Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. 86: 52. Bibcode:2005EOSTr..86...52H. doi:10.1029/2005EO050006.
  • Zoback, M.D.; S.H. Hickman; W. Ellsworth; D. Kirschner; N.B. Pennell; J. Chery; S. Sobolev (2007). Preliminary Results from SAFOD Phase 3: Implications for the state of stress and shear localization in and near the San Andreas Fault at depth in central California. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract# T13G-03.
  • Zoback, Mark D.; Hans-Peter Harjes. "Injection-induced earthquakes and crustal stress at 9 km depth at the KTB deep drilling site, Germany". Retrieved March 28, 2009.
  • EarthScope (2008). "EarthScope: SAFOD Observatory". EarthScope. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
  • GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany (October 31, 2006). "ICDP – International Continental Scientific Drilling Program". German Continental Scientific Deep Drilling Program. Archived from the original on July 29, 2007. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
  • "KTB Deep Crustal Laboratory of GFZ". KTB Deep Crustal Laboratory of GFZ. 2006. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
  • USGS; NSF (January 29, 2009). "San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth". San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. Retrieved March 28, 2009.

External links[edit]