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Key events in the Ordovician
-485 —
-480 —
-475 —
-470 —
-465 —
-460 —
-455 —
-450 —
-445 —
Key events of the Ordovician Period.
ICS-approved stages.

Axis scale: millions of years ago.[2]

The Sandbian is the first stage of the Upper Ordovician. It follows the Darriwilian and is succeeded by the Katian. Its lower boundary is defined as the first appearance datum of the graptolite species Nemagraptus gracilis around 458.4 million years ago. The Sandbian lasted for about 5.4 million years until the beginning of the Katian around 453 million years ago.[3]


The name Sandbian is derived from the village Södra Sandby (Lund Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden). The name was proposed in 2006.[4]


The GSSP of the Sandbian is the Fågelsång section (55°42′49″N 13°19′32″E / 55.7137°N 13.3255°E / 55.7137; 13.3255) at Sularp Brook, east of Lund (Skåne, Sweden). It is an outcrop of shale and mudstone. The lower boundary of the Sandbian is defined as the first appearance datum of graptolite species Nemagraptus gracilis in that section.[5]



Agnathans of the Sandbian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Dapingian-Sandbian Sacabamba, Cochabamba Department, Bolivia; Horn Creek Siltstone, Australia; Argentina; Oman




Endocerids of the Sandbian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images


  1. ^ Wellman, C.H.; Gray, J. (2000). "The microfossil record of early land plants". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 355 (1398): 717–732. doi:10.1098/rstb.2000.0612. PMC 1692785. PMID 10905606.
  2. ^ Gradstein, F. M., ed. (2012). The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Elsevier Science Ltd. p. 504. ISBN 978-0444594259.
  3. ^ "GSSP Table - Paleozoic Era". Geologic Timescale Foundation. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  4. ^ Bergström, Stig; Finney, Stanley; Xu, Chen; Goldman, Daniel; Leslie, Stephen (31 August 2006). "Three new Ordovician global stage names". Lethaia. 39 (3): 287–288. doi:10.1080/00241160600847439.
  5. ^ Bergström, Stig M.; S. C. Finney; Chen Xu; Christian Pålsson; Wang Zhi-hao; Yngve Grahn (2000). "A proposed global boundary stratotype for the base of the Upper Series of the Ordovician System: The Fågelsång section, Scania, southern Sweden" (PDF). Episodes. 23 (2): 102–109. Retrieved 20 September 2012.