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The sarangi (Nepali: सारङ्गी) is a folk Nepalese string instrument, also very popular as a folk musical instrument in Northeast India. Unlike the classical Indian sarangi which has many sympathetic strings which are not bowed, the Nepali has only four strings, all of which are played. Traditionally in Nepal, sarangi was only played by people of Gandarva or Gaine caste, who sing narrative tales and folk song. However, in present days, it is widely used and played by many. It is also used widely in Nepali music. The sarangi has largely usurped the role of the previous Gaine instrument, the plucked lute arbajo.
Traditional Nepali sarangi are made up of a single piece of wood having a neck and hollowed-out double-chambered body; they are often made from a very light wood called khiro. The lower opening is then covered up with dried sheep-skin upon which the bridge rests, while the upper chamber is left open. The neck is fretless, and the strings are tuned with the kunti.
The original strings were made out of sheep intestine, similar to the use of catgut (made from the intestines of cattle) in violins. The village people allotted intestines of sheep, sacrificed during major festivals like Dasain, to the Gandarvas. The Gandarvas left the intestine in a pot for some days. Once the meat was fully rotten, it was pulled out, leaving behind the fine nerves of the intestine which were then woven to get the strings, which produced fine quality sound. However these days, readily available nylon and steel strings have generally replaced gut strings.
The bow was traditionally strung with horse tail-hair (as used in violin bows), but in the modern day nylon bowstrings are common. Different notes are made by touching the strings with the nail of fingers of the left hand.
The range of the traditional sarangi starts from G4 and almost covers two octaves. Traditionally, the sarangi is tuned G4 C5 C5 G5 (Pa Sa Sa Pa). Because of its popularity, historical importance and socio-cultural value, the Sarangi has been featured by a number of television and radio programs in Nepal. The life imitating radio drama Katha Mitho Sarangiko and radio magazine Sarangiko Bhalakusari produced by BBC Media Action Nepal have used the term sarangi in their names as a tribute to this outstanding instrument. Dilu Gandharba, the popular vocalist and composer, has developed video tutorials on Sarangi.
The Sarangi Players: Gandarvha & Gaines
The Nepali word "Gaine" is the synonym of Gandharva which is derived from Sanskrit language. According to Brihad Nepali Shabdakosh (Extensive Nepali Dictionary) Gaine is known as caste which members are famous for singing the songs of national legacy (Gatha).They have composed a lot of historical songs (as Sabai, Gatha, Karkha) praising the then kings, prime ministers, national heroes and nation as well. In ancient time, the Gaine travelled from village to village, singing about everything from legendary heroes and ongoing battles to tales of what they saw on their journeys and the lives of the people they encountered on their way. That tradition is still seen in village areas where Gandarvhas travel to other villages and sing songs to raise income. It is their main occupation. They also make sarangi to sell on markets.
Sarangi In Modern Nepali Music
In modern Nepali music, Sarangi is one of the famous instruments. With rise of Nepali folk bands like Kutumba (band) sarangi music has inspired many other new Nepali musicians to play and learn this traditional nepali instrument. Kiran Nepali of the band Kutumba is one of the famous modern sarangi players. He is a third-generation sarangi player in his family. Jhalak Man Gandarbha, a nepali folk singer is also one of the famous sarangi players and singers who has composed many heart touching songs in Sarangi. He had made songs about heroism of nepali soldiers in various battles and emotional songs describing the misery of the family of poor soldiers dying in wars. His most famous composition "Aaama Le Sodhlin" is one of them.
- James McConnachie; Rough Guides (Firm) (2000). World music: the rough guide. Rough Guides. pp. 198–. ISBN 978-1-85828-636-5. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- Alison Arnold (2000). South Asia: the Indian subcontinent. Taylor & Francis. pp. 698–. ISBN 978-0-8240-4946-1. Retrieved 24 March 2012.. ... one of the most important of these rites is puja 'worship' performed to music of the sararigi and the arbajo, believed to be its predecessor.
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