Satyros I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Satyrus of Bosporus)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Satyros I
King of the Bosporan Kingdom
Reigncirca. 432-389
PredecessorSpartokos I
SuccessorGorgippos I and Leukon I
Borncirca. 470 BC
Panticapaeum
Died389 BC (aged 81)
Bosporan Kingdom
ConsortUnknown
Issue
GreekΣάτυρος
HouseSpartocid
FatherSpartokos I
MotherUnknown
ReligionGreek Polytheism

Satyros I (died 389 BC) also known as Satyrus (Greek:Σάτυρος A') was the Spartocid ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom from 432 BC to 389 BC.[1] During his rule he built upon the expansive foreign policy of his father, Spartokos I. He conquered Nymphaion, became involved in the political developments of the neighbouring Sindike kingdom and laid siege to the city of Theodosia,[2] which was a serious commercial rival because of its ice-free port and proximity to the grain fields of eastern Crimea.

He presided over a strengthening of ties with Athens, and at one point possibly had a statue raised in his honour in the city.[3][4] He was also the father of Leukon and Gorgippos who would expand their realm into a powerful kingdom.

Reign[edit]

Satyros I was a leading figure in the expansion of his father's kingdom, initially gaining some success by taking Nymphaeum from Gylon and perhaps Kimmerikon, but later had extensive problems with the neighbouring Sindike Kingdom, with which he had started an unsuccessful war, and the Greek city-states of Theodosia and Heraclea Pontica.

He allowed the son of his powerful minister Sopaios to travel to Athens with two ships filled with wheat.[5] Sopaios's son's ships managed to avoid pirates and arrived at Athens. Once in Athens, his son met with the Athenian banker, Pasion, and managed to settle his affairs. Satyros, however, came to the view that Sopaios was involved in a conspiracy to take his life. So the king had Sopaios arrested. As Sopaios's son was still in Athens, Satyros ordered the Bosporans in Athens to confiscate Sopaios's son's property and force him to return to the Bosporan Kingdom.[6]

Afterwards Satyros acquitted Sopaios of his crimes and agreed to Sopaios's daughter, Theodosia, marrying his son Leukon.[7]

Problems with the Sindi[edit]

Satyros encountered extensive problems with the Sindi. According to Polyaenus, the problems arose because Satyros I had offered his daughter to Hekaktaios,[8] the king of the Sindi, but had instructed Hekaktaios to kill his existing wife, Tirgatao. Hekaktaios, instead of killing his wife,[9] had her imprisoned in a tower, from which she was able to escape and reach her tribe, the Ixomatae. Tirgatao married her father's successor, her father presumably being king of the Ixomatae, and roused many tribes to make war against Satyros.[10] Satyros, realising that he could not win, offered his son Metrodoros as a hostage and sued for peace.[11]

Shortly after this, there was an attempt on Tirgatao's life, likely organized by Satyros.[12] After finding out about this scheme, Tirgatao had Metrodoros killed, and once again waged war on Satyros.[13] This war would be ended by Leukon and Gorgippos shortly after their father's death and their ascent to the throne.[14]

Death and legacy[edit]

Satyros would later die in the unsuccessful Siege of Theodosia in 389 BC at the age of 81, his death leading to the ascension to Leukon and Gorgippos who would expand the Bosporan Kingdom and establish a dynasty that would rule the Bosporus for another 300 years.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gaudukevich, V. F. (1979). "Bosporskoe tsarstvo". The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (3rd Edition). Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  2. ^ Trofimova, Anna A. (2007). Greeks on the Black Sea: ancient art from the Hermitage. Los Angeles, USA: Getty Publications. pp. 11–12.
  3. ^ Dinarchus. Against Demosthenes. Cambridge MA (USA): Harvard University Press. p. 1.43.
  4. ^ Gardiner-Garden, John R. (1986). "Fourth Century Conceptions of Maiotian Ethnography". Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte: 193. JSTOR 4435962.
  5. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. pp. V.2. The young bosporan then got his two ships loaded with wheat and set sail.
  6. ^ Moreno. Feeding the Democracy: The Athenian Grain Supply in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries BC.
  7. ^ Glover. From Pericles to Philip. and in token to his reconciliation, had advanced Sopaios to more important duties and had taken his daughter to be his own son's wife
  8. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. pp. V.2. Satyrus gave him his daughter in marriage, and urged him to kill his former wife
  9. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. pp. V.2. Hecataeus passionately loved the Maeotian, he could not think of killing her, but confined her to a strong castle
  10. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. pp. V.2. The confederates first invaded the country of Hecataeus, and afterwards ravaged the dominions of Satyrus
  11. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. pp. V.2. accompanied by Metrodorus the son of Satyrus, who was offered as a hostage
  12. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. pp. V.2. But no sooner had they made the oath, than they planned schemes to break it. Satyrus prevailed on two of his friends, to revolt to her, and put themselves under her protection
  13. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. pp. V.2. Tirgatao ordered the hostage to be executed, and laid waste the territories of Satyrus with fire and sword
  14. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. pp. V.2. leaving his son Gorgippus to succeed him in the throne. He renounced his father's proceedings, and sued for peace, which she granted on payment of a tribute, and put and end to the war.

External links[edit]

Gaudukevich, V. F. (1979). "Bosporskoe tsarstvo". The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (3rd Edition). Retrieved 5 December 2011.

Trofimova, Anna A. (2007). Greeks on the Black Sea: ancient art from the Hermitage. Los Angeles, USA: Getty Publications. pp. 11–12.

Dinarchus. Against Demosthenes. Cambridge MA (USA): Harvard University Press. p. 1.43.

Gardiner-Garden, John R. (1986). "Fourth Century Conceptions of Maiotian Ethnography". Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte: 193. JSTOR 4435962.