Savandurga (Kannada: ಸಾವನದುರ್ಗ) is a hill 60 km west of Bangalore (Karnataka, India) off the Magadi road , in India. The hill is considered to be among the largest monolith hills in Asia. The hill rises to 1226 m above mean sea level and forms a part of the Deccan plateau. It consists of peninsular gneiss, granites, basic dykes and laterites. The Arkavathi river passes nearby through the Thippagondanahalli reservoir and on towards Manchanabele dam.
Origin of name
Savandurga is formed by two hills known locally as Karigudda (black hill) and Biligudda (white hill). The earliest record of the name of the hill is from 1340 AD by Hoysala Ballala III from Madabalu where it is called Savandi. Another view is that the name is originated from Samantadurga attributed to a Samantharaya, a governor under Ahchutaraya at Magadi, although there is no inscription confirming this. This was the secondary capital of the Magadi rulers such as Kempegowda. From 1638 to 1728, Mysore took over this place and Dalavayi Devaraja occupied this place with the palace at Nelapattana. In 1791 Lord Cornwallis captured it from Tipu Sultan's forces during the Third Anglo-Mysore War. Robert Home in his Select views in Mysore (1794) shows distant views of the hill from Bangalore. He called it Savinadurga or the fort of death. There were no steps to reach the hill top and it was covered by bamboos and other trees forming a barricade.
Megalithic burial urns have been found in the area. Saavana in Sanskrit also means three time rituals.
The main deity of the place is Sri Savandi Veerabhadraswamy Virabhadra. The temple is situated in the foot of the Savandurga hill. The lord Veerabhadraswamy has followers across the south karnataka districts like Bangalore, Ramanagara, Tumkur and Mysore.
There is a Temple of Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy, where there is an Idol of Lord Narasimha has been worshiped for many generations.
The Savandurga hills are frequented by pilgrims who come to visit the Savandi Veerabhadreshwara Swamy and Narasimha Swamy temple sited at the foothills. Picnickers come to spend time among the serene environs of the hill. Rock climbers, cave explorers and adventurers are among others who frequent the locale.
Manchanabele Dam is a great place for watersports. It is worth visiting this dam if you are visiting savandurga.
Bus route: You get a direct BMTC bus from K. R. Market (Route No.241M) which stops just below the hill.
- BMTC Route No. 227M and 227VA stops at Nayakanahalli and Veeregowdanadoddi respectively from where, there are share autos to reach the hill.
- You can take a bus to Tavarekere,Magadi Road from Kempegowda Bus Station. Take a private or KSRTC bus from Tavarekere to Hospet Gate from where you can take share autos to reach the hill.
- You can take KSRTC buses which goes towards Magadi from Kempegowda Bus Station and alight at Hospet Gate stop from where you can take share autos to reach the hill.
- Adventure: Many Bangalore Based private adventure tourism companies organise activities here. Please do a complete research about the safety record of each organization before signing up for any activity.
- Food: Just opposite to the Veerabhadraswamy Temple, there are few petty shops and fast food for juices and chats. For Non-Vegetarian food,you have to go to Hospet Gate or Magadi (12km from Savanadurga).
Savandurga provides for some top class serious slab climbing routes in the world. There are a dozen routes, bolted or otherwise on the south face of the monolith. These range anywhere from 700 to 950 feet of technical climbs, providing sport, trad or a trad-sport mix. Most popular routes include Beladingulu (5.10a sport/trad mix), Simple Monkey Day (5.10a sport), Deepavali set of routes (trad routes with multiple variations that range from 5.7+ G to 5.9 R/X in difficulty). The easiest route is called Cloud 9, a 5.5 rated sport route, and the hardest is Shanti Das, a 5.11D route put up by Lionel Daudet. Most of these routes can be completed in half a day to a day, depending on various factors. Some of the routes have long runouts, and most of them face South or are exposed to South-east, implying that when the sun comes up, the rock becomes quite hot.
|Caprona ransonnettii||Ypthima asterope||Chilades contracta||Grass jewel||Pointed ciliate blue (left)
and bright babul blue (right)
Surrounding the area is a state forest with scrub and dry deciduous forest covering 27 km2. The degraded forest, which is considered as shrub and tree savanna of the Anogeissus–Chloroxylon–Acacia series is highly diverse, recording over 59 tree and 119 shrub species. Some of the plant species recorded here include:
- Abrus precatorius L. liana
- Abutilon indicum (L) Sweet. shrub
- Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. (ex Benth.) tree
- Acacia catechu Willd. tree
- Acacia chundra (Roxb.) Willd. tree
- Acacia concina (Willd) DC. liana
- Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. tree
- Acacia ferruginea DC. tree
- Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd. tree
- Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. tree
- Acacia sinuata (Lour.) Merr. liana
- Acacia torta (Roxb.) Bran. shrub
- Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) Bran. tree
- Alangium lamarckii The. tree
- Alangium salvifolium (L. f.) Wang. tree
- Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. tree
- Albizia lebbeck (L.) Willd. tree
- Albizia odoratissima (L.F.) Benth. tree
- Albizia polycantha tree
- Annona reticulata L. shrub
- Annona squamosa L. shrub
- Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb.) Wall. tree
- Aristolochia indica Juss. shrub
- Azadirachta indica Juss. tree
- Bambusa arundinacea Retz.
- Barleria involurata Nees. shrub
- Bauhinia purpurea L. tree
- Bombax ceiba auct. tree
- Boswellia serrata Coleb. tree
- Bridelia retusa Spreng. tree
- Buchanania lanzan Sprengel. tree
- Butea frondosa Roxb. tree
- Cadaba indica Lam. tree
- Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming shrub
- Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand. shrub
- Canthium angustifolium Roxb. tree
- Canthium dicoccum (Gaert.) T&B. tree
- Canthium didymum auct. tree
- Canthium parviflorum Lam. tree
- Capparis sepiaria L. liana
- Careya arborea Roxb. tree
- Cassia angustifolia tree
- Cassia auriculata L. shrub
- Cassia fistula L. tree
- Cassia montana Roth. tree
- Cassia occidentalis L. shrub
- Cassia siamea Lam. tree
- Cassia surattensis Burm. shrub
- Cassia torta L. shrub
- Cassine paniculata (W&A) Romam. tree
- Celastrus paniculata (Willd.) shrub
- Chloroxylon swietenia DC., Prodr. tree
- Chromolaena odoratissima shrub
- Cocculus villosus DC. shrub
- Cycas religiosa tree
- Daemia extensa (Jacq) R, Br. shrub
- Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. tree
- Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. tree
- Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees.
- Diospyros montana Roxb. tree
- Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. shrub
- Erythroxylon monogynum Roxb. shrub
- Eucalyptus glabulus L. tree
- Eugenia jambolana Lam. tree
- Euphorbia antiquorum L. shrub
- Euphorbia thirukalli L. shrub
- Feronia elephantum Corr. tree
- Ficus benghalensis L. tree
- Ficus religiosa L. tree
- Ficus tinctoria Forst. tree
- Glycosmis pentaphylla (Roxb.) DC. shrub
- Gmelina arborea Roxb. tree
- Grewia hirsuta Vahl. shrub
- Grewia orientalis L. shrub
- Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Schultes. shrub
- Helicteres isora L. shrub
- Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. shrub
- Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roth.) DC. tree
- Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch. tree
- Ipomoea carnea Jace. shrub
- Ipomoea repens auct. shrub
- Ixora polyantha Wt. shrub
- Jasminum pubescens Willd. shrub
- Justicia montana (Nees.) & ess. tree
- Kirganelia reticulata (Pior.) Baill. tree
- Lantana camara L. shrub
- Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) W&A shrub
- Limonia acidissima auct. tree
- Murraya koenigii tree
- Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack. tree
- Ocimum sanctum L. shrub
- Olea dioica Roxb. tree
- Opuntia dillenii (K.G.) Haw. shrub
- Paramignya monophylla Wt. tree
- Passiflora foetida L. shrub
- Phyllanthus emblica tree
- Plumbago zelyanica Willd. shrub
- Plumeria alba Vent. tree
- Polygonum glabrum Willd. tree
- Pongamia glabra Vent. tree
- Premna tomentosa Willd. tree
- Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. tree
- Prosopis spicigera L. shrub
- Pterolobium hexapetalum (Roth.) S&W. shrub
- Randia dumetorium (Retz.) Poir. tree
- Santalum album L. tree
- Sida cordifolia L. shrub
- Streblus asper Lour. tree
- Strychnos potatorum L.F. tree
- Tamarindus indica L. tree
- Tarenna asiatica (L.) Schumann. shrub
- Tecoma stans (L.) Kumth. shrub
- Tectona grandis L.F. tree
- Terminalia arajuna (Roxb. ex DC.) W&A. tree
- Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. tree
- Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. tree
- Terminalia paniculata Roth. tree
- Terminalia tomentosa (DC.) W&A tree
- Tinospora cordifolia tree
- Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. shrub
- Tylophora pauciflora shrub
- Vitex altissima L.F. tree
- Wrightia tinctoria R.Br. tree
- Wrightia tomentosa R.&S. tree
- Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk. tree
- Ziziphus oenoplia Miller. shrub
- Ziziphus xylopyrus Willd. tree
- Ziziphus zizyphus (L.) H.Karst. tree
- Wilks, Mark. Historical Sketches of the South of India in an Attempt to Trace the History of Mysoor: from the origin of the Hindoo government of that state, to the extinction of the Mohammedan dynasty in 1799. Edited with notes by Murray Hammick. Mysore: Government Branch Press, 1930-1932.
- Anon. (1908). The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Volume 22. Oxford. p. 150.
- Home, Robert. Select Views in Mysore: the country of Tippoo Sultan from drawings taken on the spot by Mr. Home with historical descriptions. First publ. London: Bower, 1794.
- Branfill, BR (1881) On the Savandurga rude stone cemetery, central Maisur. Indian Antiquary 10:1-12
- K. S. Murali, A. Kavitha, and R. P. Harish (2003) Spatial patterns of tree and shrub species diversity in Savanadurga State Forest, Karnataka. Current Science, 84(6):808-813
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