Schinzel–Giedion syndrome

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Schinzel–Giedion syndrome
Other namesSchinzel–Giedion midface retraction syndrome[1]

Schinzel–Giedion syndrome (SGS) is a congenital neurodegenerative terminal syndrome. It was first described in 1978 by Albert Schinzel (1944–) and Andreas Giedion (1925–)[2][3] as a syndrome with severe midface retraction, skull anomalies, renal anomalies (hydronephrosis) and other anomalies. Babies born with Schinzel–Giedion syndrome have severe mental retardation, growth retardation (unless fed through a feeding tube) and global developmental delay.[citation needed]


Genetic testing for mutations in SETBP1 gene can confirm a diagnosis.[4]


Patients with this can have hydronephrosis, seizures, visual impairments, or alacrima.[5]

Sleep apnea may also be present,


Most children with condition die before 2 years of age.[6]: 306  With it being estimated that 50% will die before 2 years of age. Death during infancy is due to pneumonia, cardiac arrest, tumors, lung hypoplasia, or seizures. [7]

The longest documented survivor is 15 years old.[7] Children with this condition who survive past infancy have a higher risk of developing tumors.[8]


According to National Organization for Rare Disorders, the disorder is not inherited from the parents.[4] It is caused by a new spontaneous mutation of the SETBP1 gene. The SETBP1 gene is a cancer promoting gene, and affected children who survive past three years of age are at risk for different types of cancer.


The exact prevalence of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is unknown. But, about 50 to 80 cases have been reported in literature.[8][6]: 306  Although the occurrence of this disorder is thought to be higher.[9]

According to Orphanet, the condition occurs in 1 in 1 million people.[10]

The condition affects both males and females equally.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "OMIM Entry - # 269150 - SCHINZEL-GIEDION MIDFACE RETRACTION SYNDROME". Retrieved 2019-12-24.
  2. ^ synd/1866 at Who Named It?
  3. ^ Schinzel A, Giedion A (1978). "A syndrome of severe midface retraction, multiple skull anomalies, clubfeet, and cardiac and renal malformations in sibs". Am. J. Med. Genet. 1 (4): 361–75. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320010402. PMID 665725.
  4. ^ a b c "Schinzel Giedion Syndrome". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2021-11-05.
  5. ^ "Schinzel Giedion syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) – an NCATS Program". Retrieved 2021-11-05.
  6. ^ a b Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Jones, Marilyn Crandall; Campo, Miguel del (2021-03-02). Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation - E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-323-63883-8.
  7. ^ a b Liu, Dongyou (2020-05-08). Handbook of Tumor Syndromes. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-351-18741-1.
  8. ^ a b "Schinzel-Giedion syndrome: MedlinePlus Genetics". Retrieved 2021-11-05.
  9. ^ Name (2021-02-10). "Research grant of over 2 Million Euros offers new hope for children with rare condition Schinzel-Giedion Syndrome". ACNR | Paper & Online Neurology Journal. Retrieved 2021-11-05.
  10. ^ RESERVED, INSERM US14-- ALL RIGHTS. "Orphanet: Schinzel Giedion syndrome". Retrieved 2021-11-05.

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