# Schwarz integral formula

In complex analysis, a branch of mathematics, the Schwarz integral formula, named after Hermann Schwarz, allows one to recover a holomorphic function, up to an imaginary constant, from the boundary values of its real part.

## Unit disc

Let ƒ = u + iv be a function which is holomorphic on the closed unit disc {z ∈ C | |z| ≤ 1}. Then

${\displaystyle f(z)={\frac {1}{2\pi i}}\oint _{|\zeta |=1}{\frac {\zeta +z}{\zeta -z}}{\text{Re}}(f(\zeta ))\,{\frac {d\zeta }{\zeta }}+i{\text{Im}}(f(0))}$

for all |z| < 1.

## Upper half-plane

Let ƒ = u + iv be a function that is holomorphic on the closed upper half-plane {z ∈ C | Im(z) ≥ 0} such that, for some α > 0, |zα ƒ(z)| is bounded on the closed upper half-plane. Then

${\displaystyle f(z)={\frac {1}{\pi i}}\int _{-\infty }^{\infty }{\frac {u(\zeta ,0)}{\zeta -z}}\,d\zeta ={\frac {1}{\pi i}}\int _{-\infty }^{\infty }{\frac {Re(f)(\zeta +0i)}{\zeta -z}}\,d\zeta }$

for all Im(z) > 0.

Note that, as compared to the version on the unit disc, this formula does not have an arbitrary constant added to the integral; this is because the additional decay condition makes the conditions for this formula more stringent.

## Corollary of Poisson integral formula

The formula follows from Poisson integral formula applied to u:[1][2]

${\displaystyle u(z)={\frac {1}{2\pi }}\int _{0}^{2\pi }u(e^{i\psi })\operatorname {Re} {e^{i\psi }+z \over e^{i\psi }-z}\,d\psi {\text{ for }}|z|<1.}$

By means of conformal maps, the formula can be generalized to any simply connected open set.

## Notes and references

1. ^ "Lectures on Entire Functions - Google Book Search". books.google.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
2. ^ The derivation without an appeal to the Poisson formula can be found at: http://planetmath.org/encyclopedia/PoissonFormula.html
• Ahlfors, Lars V. (1979), Complex Analysis, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-085008-9
• Remmert, Reinhold (1990), Theory of Complex Functions, Second Edition, Springer, ISBN 0-387-97195-5
• Saff, E. B., and A. D. Snider (1993), Fundamentals of Complex Analysis for Mathematics, Science, and Engineering, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-327461-6