Sextus Julius Caesar

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Sextus Julius Caesar was the name of several ancient Roman men of the Julii Caesares family. Sextus was one of the three most common praenomina (first names) used by the Julii Caesares, the others being Lucius and Gaius, which was the praenomen of the most famous Julius Caesar.

Sextus Julius Caesar (praetor 208 BC)[edit]

Sextus Julius Caesar was a praetor in Sicily in 208 BC, commanding the legiones Cannenses, the legions formed from the survivors of Cannae. Although command of the Cannenses was usually considered a punishment or disciplinary action, he was sent as an envoy (legatus) to the consul Titus Quinctius Crispinus when he was wounded.[1]

May have been a son of Lucius Julius Libo II (son of the consul Lucius Julius Libo).[2] May have been the brother of Lucius Julius Caesar I[3] or the father of Sextus Julius Caesar, the military tribune of 181 BC.[2]

Sextus Julius Caesar (military tribune 181 BC)[edit]

Sextus Julius Caesar, also known after his adoption in adulthood as Sextus Julius Catulus Caesar,[citation needed] was a military tribune in 181 BC under Lucius Aemilius Paullus in Liguria.[4] In 170–169, he served as a diplomatic legate for restoring the liberty of Abdera, Thrace, and helped lead the search for those who had been unjustly sold into slavery.[5] Father of[3] or identical to[2] Sextus Julius Caesar, the consul of 157 BC.

Sextus Julius Caesar (consul 157 BC)[edit]

Son of[3] or identical to[2] the Sextus Julius Caesar who was military tribune in 181 BC. Curule aedile in 165, he and his colleague Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella presented games (ludi) at which Terence's Hecyra was first performed, with a notorious lack of success.[6] He held the praetorship no later than 160.[7] Consul in 157 BC,[3] although some sources give 156 BC as the year of the consulate.[8] In 147, he was sent to rebuke the Achaean League for their treatment of Roman allies and to caution them against engaging in hostilities against Rome. Critolaos, a leader of the Achaeans, blocked Caesar's efforts to arbitrate in the dispute between the League and Sparta, and war was declared the following year.[9]

Sextus Julius Caesar (praetor urbanus 123 BC)[edit]

Sextus Julius Caesar, probably a son of Sextus Julius Caesar the consul of 157 BC,[3] was praetor urbanus in 123 BC.[10]

Sextus Julius Caesar (monetalis around 125–120 BC)[edit]

Sextus Julius Caesar was a monetalis (moneyer) around 125–120 BC. He may have been either the consul of 157,[11] or more likely the praetor of 123.[12]

Sextus Julius Caesar (consul 91 BC)[edit]

A son of Gaius Julius Caesar II,[3] and so a brother to Julius Caesar's father, this Sextus Julius Caesar was a praetor by 94 BC[13] and consul in 91.[14] In 90, he was proconsul and won a military victory, probably over the Paeligni. He died while laying siege to Asculum.[15]

Sextus Julius Caesar (flamen Quirinalis)[edit]

Sextus Julius Caesar, a son of Sextus Julius Caesar, the consul of 91 may have been a flamen Quirinalis.[3] A list given by Cicero indicates that a Sextus Julius Caesar was inaugurated as flamen Quirinalis, a lifetime office, around 60–58 BC. This flamen Quirinalis may be the same as the promagistrate of Syria, or less likely, the latter may be his son.[16][17]

Sextus Julius Caesar (governor of Syria)[edit]

Probably a son of Sextus Julius Caesar the flamen Quirinalis, although he may be the same,[3] this Sextus Julius Caesar served under his kinsman Julius Caesar in Spain during the civil war in 49, probably as a military tribune.[18] He continued his service in 48, most likely as quaestor.[19] He was appointed to a command in Syria around July 47, either as a legate or more likely proquaestor pro praetore. He remained as promagistrate for 46 in Syria, where he was killed in a revolt led by a Caecilius Bassus, a supporter of Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). His command was given to Quintus Cornificius, tentatively identified as a praetor of 45, who at the time was promagistrate in Cilicia.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ T.R.S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (American Philological Association, 1951, 1986), vol. 1, p. 290.
  2. ^ a b c d Miriam Griffin. A Companion to Julius Caesar, p. 13 ff. John Wiley & Sons, 2009. ISBN 1444308459 ISBN 9781444308457
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1870. Volume 1 p. 536 ff.
  4. ^ Livy 40.27.4–6; Broughton, MRR1, p. 285.
  5. ^ Livy 43.4.12–13; Broughton, MRR1, p. 421.
  6. ^ Broughton, MRR1, p. 438.
  7. ^ Broughton, MRR1, p. 445.
  8. ^ Everett Francis Briggs. A Briggs memorial: some ancestors of John Briggs of Taunton, Massachusetts : with collateral Deighton (Williams), Whitney, and Mayflower-Rogers lines, p. 5 Family History Publishers, 1997 ISBN 0965435512 ISBN 9780965435512
  9. ^ Polybius 38.9–11; Cassius Dio, frg. 72; Broughton, MRR1, p. 464; Cambridge Ancient History VIII2 322
  10. ^ Rhetorica ad Herennium 2.19 (though the passage less likely could refer to the consul of 91); Cicero, De domo sua 136; Broughton, MRR1, pp. 513, 515 (note 2).
  11. ^ Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (American Philological Association, 1952), vol. 2, p. 442.
  12. ^ Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (American Philological Association, 1986), vol. 3, p. 443.
  13. ^ Broughton, MRR2, p. 12.
  14. ^ Broughton, MRR2, p. 20.
  15. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile 1.48; Broughton, MRR2, p. 27.
  16. ^ Cicero, De Haruspicum Responsis 12; Broughton, MRR2, p. 199.
  17. ^ Napoleon III. Histoire de Jules César Volume 1, p. 253 Paris: H. Plon 1865
  18. ^ Caesar, Bellum Civile 2.20.7; Broughton, MRR2, p. 264.
  19. ^ Cassius Dio 47.26.3; Broughton, MRR2, pp. 274 and 285 (note 5).
  20. ^ De Bello Alexandrino 66.1; Livy, Periochae 114; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 14.160, 170, 178, 180, and The Jewish War 1.205, 211–213, 216; Appian, Bellum Civile 3.77, 4.58; Cassius Dio 47.26.3; Broughton, MRR2, pp. 285 (note 5), 289, 297.

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