Sheikh Mohammad Rohani
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Sheikh Shah Muhammad Khan Rohani (Rohani Pathan)(1220-1305 AD)(Pashto: Rohani Pathanشيخ محمد خان روحانى) also known as Pir Shah Muhammad Khan Rohani and Rohani Ba Ba was a Sufi cleric born around 1220 AD. The cleric, whose shrine in southern Afghanistan attracts thousands of Sufi visitors every year, is said to have migrated to current day Afghanistan in the later parts of the 13th century AD during the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad. He was a disciple of the renowned Sheikh Rukn-e-Alam.
In Pakistan there live many people who belongs to شيخ شاہ محمد خان روحانى many families live in Sindh province & Balochistan Province, Pakistan they are known as Nohani Khan (Pathan) نوحانی پٹھان because they speak local languages therefore they claim themselves Nohani but the original word is Rohani روحانی similarly in Punjab province Pakistan the families live there and known as Lohani Khan (Pathan) لوحانی پٹھان they are all belongs to شيخ شاہ محمد روحانى they speak Punjabi Local language therefore they claim themselves Lohani لوحانی پٹھان but the original word is Rohani because they all belongs to شيخ شاہ محمد روحانى in Punjabi they called لوحانی and in sindhi they called it نوحانی Nohani. شيخ شاہ محمد خان روحانى Sheikh Shah Muhammad Rohani born in Bannu Pakistan many families are living there in Bannu Pakistan from this family Many people live in India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Afganistan and Iran.
The demise of the Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad in 1258 AD triggered a mass exodus of Islamic scholars and spiritual leaders from Baghdad fearing persecution at the hands of Turko-Mongol invaders. Some of the Abbasid members migrated westward and established yet another dynasty in Egypt that lasted until 1519. Most of the Abbasid cadre migrated southeastward to Iran, Central Asia, Afghanistan, and parts of India.
The descendants of Sheikh Shah Muhammad Rohani Pathan in the Bannu region of Pakistan and parts of Western Afghanistan identify as "Shah," "Said" or "Sheikh" to claim hereditary spiritual honor. Afghan ethnographers refer to the descendants of Sheikh Shah Muhammad Rohani as Sayyid.  Sheikh Shah Muhammad Rohani Pathan is also said to have converted some remote Afghan tribes to Islam. He was the spiritual leader, "Pir," of the Banuchi tribe in Bannu where the cleric is still held in great esteem.
According to Muhammad Hayat Khan, the author of the acclaimed reference book on Afghan tribes Hayat-i-Afghani, Sheikh Shah Muhammad Rohani Pathan and his son Sheikh Naikbin Rohani Khan aided the Banuchi tribe gain control of the Bannu region after Mangal and Hani tribes reneged on their promises to deliver the customary ten percent tax to the family of the Sheikh. The descendants of the Sheikh were allowed to collect and appropriate local taxes during the reign of Mogul emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir but the emperor's son Bahadur Shah discontinued this trend. Nevertheless the Sheikhan (Rohani Pathan) of Bannu were exempt from Mogul and later Durrani taxes until 1847 when Sir Herbert Edwardes, a British colonial officer, levied six percent tax on the annual income of the tribe. Following the imposition of colonial taxes large numbers of this community migrated to southern Afghanistan.
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