Japanese boy at a shrine in Tokyo, dressed up for the Shichi-Go-San festival
|Official name||7-5-3 (shichi go san)|
|Significance||Traditional rite of passage and festival day in Japan for three- and seven-year-old girls and three- and five-year-old boys|
Shichi-Go-San (七五三?, lit. "Seven-Five-Three") is a traditional rite of passage and festival day in Japan for three- and seven-year-old girls and three- and five-year-old boys, held annually on November 15 to celebrate the growth and well-being of young children. As it is not a national holiday, it is generally observed on the nearest weekend.
Shichi-Go-San is said to have originated in the Heian period amongst court nobles who would celebrate the passage of their children into middle childhood. The ages 3, 5 and 7 are consistent with East Asian numerology, which claims that odd numbers are lucky. The practice was set to the fifteenth of the month during the Kamakura period.
Over time, this tradition passed to the samurai class who added a number of rituals. Children—who up until the age of three were required by custom to have shaven heads—were allowed to grow out their hair. Boys of age five could wear hakama for the first time, while girls of age seven replaced the simple cords they used to tie their kimono with the traditional obi. By the Meiji period, the practice was adopted amongst commoners as well, and included the modern ritual of visiting a shrine to drive out evil spirits and wish for a long healthy life.
The tradition has changed little since the Meiji period. While the ritual regarding hair has been discarded, boys who are aged three or five and girls who are aged three or seven are still dressed in kimono—many for the first time—for visits to shrines. Three-year-old girls usually wear hifu (a type of padded vest) with their kimono. Western-style formal wear is also worn by some children. A more modern practice is photography, and this day is well known as a day to take pictures of children. Some families observe the rite based on the traditional way of calculating age, or kazoedoshi, in which children are one year old at birth and gain a year on each Lunar New Year.
Chitose Ame (千歳飴?), literally "thousand year candy", is given to children on Shichi-Go-San. Chitose Ame is long, thin, red and white candy, which symbolizes healthy growth and longevity. It is given in a bag decorated with a crane and a turtle, which represent long life in Japan. Chitose Ame is wrapped in a thin, clear, and edible rice paper film that resembles plastic.
In popular culture
- In the OVA Mega Man: Upon a Star, Roll makes a promise with Akane at a Japanese festival that she will wear a kimono on this event.
- In Paranoia Agent Episode 8, "Happy Family Planning", the character Fuyubachi falls asleep on the train holding Chitose Ame, which he later gives to the young girl Kamome-kun.
- In Katte ni Kaizō Episode 3, "To Celebrate This Child's 7th Birthday", it's said that Kaizo is scared of 3-5-7 because of a childhood memory.
- In Osomatsu-san Episode 17, a picture of Jyushimatsu wearing kimono for 3-5-7 is shown in the photo album.
- Rupp, Katherine (2003). Gift-giving in Japan: Cash, Connections, Cosmologies. Stanford University Press. p. 64.
- GoJapanGo: Shichi-Go-San, retrieved November 16, 2005
- Kids Web Japan: Shichi-Go-San, retrieved November 16, 2005
- Joly, Henri (1908). Legend in japanese Art. Bodley head.
- Joly, Henri (1908). Legend in japanese Art. Bodley head. pp. 78, 149, 316.
- Fukue, Natsuko, "It's fall, when kids in kimono fete 7-5-3 rituals", Japan Times, 11 November 2008, p. 3.