# Shock diamond

Shock diamonds (also known as Mach diamonds or thrust diamonds) are a formation of standing wave patterns that appear in the supersonic exhaust plume of an aerospace propulsion system, such as a supersonic jet engine, rocket, ramjet, or scramjet, when it is operated in an atmosphere. The "diamonds" are actually a complex flow field made visible by abrupt changes in local density and pressure as the exhaust passes through a series of standing shock waves and expansion fans. Mach diamonds are named after Ernst Mach, the physicist who first described them.[1]: 48

## Mechanism

Shock diamonds form when the supersonic exhaust from a propelling nozzle is slightly over-expanded, meaning that the static pressure of the gases exiting the nozzle is less than the ambient air pressure. The higher ambient pressure compresses the flow, and since the resulting pressure increase in the exhaust gas stream is adiabatic, a reduction in velocity causes its static temperature to be substantially increased.[2] The exhaust is generally over-expanded at low altitudes, where air pressure is higher.

As the flow exits the nozzle, ambient air pressure will compress the flow.[2] The external compression is caused by oblique shock waves inclined at an angle to the flow. The compressed flow is alternately expanded by Prandtl-Meyer expansion fans, and each "diamond" is formed by the pairing of an oblique shock with an expansion fan. When the compressed flow becomes parallel to the center line, a shock wave perpendicular to the flow forms, called a normal shock wave or Mach disk. This locates the first shock diamond, and the space between it and the nozzle is called the "zone of silence".[3] The distance from the nozzle to the first shock diamond can be approximated by

${\displaystyle x=0.67D_{0}{\sqrt {\frac {P_{0}}{P_{1}}}},}$

where x is the distance, D0 is the nozzle diameter, P0 is flow pressure, and P1 is atmospheric pressure.[3]

As the exhaust passes through the normal shock wave, its temperature increases, igniting excess fuel and causing the glow that makes the shock diamonds visible.[2] The illuminated regions either appear as disks or diamonds, giving them their name.

Eventually the flow expands enough so that its pressure is again below ambient, at which point the expansion fan reflects from the contact discontinuity (the outer edge of the flow). The reflected waves, called the compression fan, cause the flow to compress.[2] If the compression fan is strong enough, another oblique shock wave will form, creating a second Mach disk and shock diamond. The pattern of disks and diamonds would repeat indefinitely if the gases were ideal and frictionless;[2] however, turbulent shear at the contact discontinuity causes the wave pattern to dissipate with distance.[4]

Diamond patterns can similarly form when a nozzle is under-expanded (exit pressure higher than ambient), in lower atmospheric pressure at higher altitudes. In this case, the expansion fan is first to form, followed by the oblique shock.[2]

## Alternative sources

Shock diamonds are most commonly associated with jet and rocket propulsion, but they can form in other systems.

### Natural gas pipeline blowdowns

Shock diamonds can be seen[by whom?] during gas pipeline blowdowns because the gas is under high pressure and exits the blowdown valve at extreme speeds.[citation needed]

### Artillery

When artillery pieces are fired, gas exits the cannon muzzle at supersonic speeds and produces a series of shock diamonds. The diamonds cause a bright muzzle flash which can expose the location of gun emplacements to the enemy. It was found that when the ratio between the flow pressure and atmospheric pressure is close, which can be achieved with a flash suppressor, the shock diamonds were greatly minimized. Adding a muzzle brake to the end of the muzzle balances the pressures and prevents shock diamonds.[1]: 41