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Soffioni in Larderello, Tuscany, Italy.

Soffioni (sometimes spelt suffioni), a name applied in Italy to certain volcanic vents which emit jets of steam, generally associated with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, sometimes also with a little ammonia and marsh gas.[1]

The soffioni are usually arranged in groups, and are best represented in the Maremma of Tuscany, where they contain a small proportion of boric acid, for which they are utilized industrially.[2][1] For such natural steam-holes, the French geologists often use the term soufflards in place of the Italian soffioni.[1]


  1. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Soffioni". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ "Borax and Boric Acid.—Production in Tuscany". Year Book of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 1920. pp. 348–349.